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Biosynthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Incorporation into Ruminant's Products

  • Song, Man K. (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kennelly, John J. (Dairy Research and Technology Centre, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta)
  • Published : 2003.02.01

Abstract

Bio-hydrogenation of $C_{18}$-unsaturated fatty acids released from the hydrolysis of dietary lipids in the rumen, in general, occurs rapidly but the range of hydrogenation is quite large, depending on the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, the configuration of unsaturated fatty acids, microbial type and the experimental condition. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is incompletely hydrogenated products by rumen microorganisms in ruminant animals. It has been shown to have numerous potential benefits for human health and the richest dietary sources of CLA are bovine milk and milk products. The cis-9, trans-11 is the predominant CLA isomer in bovine products and other isomers can be formed with double bonds in positions 8/10, 10/12, or 11/13. The term CLA refers to this whole group of 18 carbon conjugated fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid goes through a similar bio-hydrogenation process producing trans-11 $C_{18:1}$ and $C_{18:0}$, but may not appear to produce CLA as an intermediate. Although the CLA has been mostly derived from the dietary $C_{18:2}$ alternative pathway may be existed due to the extreme microbial diversity in the reticulo-rumen. Regardless of the origin of CLA, manipulation of the bio-hydrogenation process remains the key to increasing CLA in milk and beef by dietary means, by increasing rumen production of CLA. Although the effect of oil supplementation on changes in fatty acid composition in milk seems to be clear its effect on beef is still controversial. Thus further studies are required to enrich the CLA in beef under various dietary and feeding conditions.

Keywords

Bio-hydrogenation;Rumen Bacteria;Unsaturated Fatty Acids;Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA);Oil Source;Dietary Manipulation

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