Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism and Its Effect on Birth Weight in Cattle and Buffalo

  • Biswas, T.K. (Animal Genetics Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Bhattacharya, T.K. (Animal Genetics Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Narayan, A.D. (Animal Genetics Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Badola, S. (Animal Genetics Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Kumar, Pushpendra (Animal Genetics Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Sharma, Arjava (Animal Genetics Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute)
  • Received : 2002.08.02
  • Accepted : 2002.11.15
  • Published : 2003.04.01


The study was carried out in Sahiwal, Holstein Friesian, Jersey and crossbred cattle and Murrah, Bhadwari, Jaffarabadi, Nagpuri and Surti buffaloes maintained at different organized herds to work out the polymorphism at growth hormone locus and study its effect on birth weight. A 223 bp fragment of the gene was amplified and digested with Alu I restriction enzyme. Two alleles, L and V with three genotypes LL, LV and VV were observed in Jersey, Holstein and cross bred cattle. Sahiwal cattle and buffalo were monomorphic for this locus producing only one genotype LL and one allele L. The frequency of L allele was comparatively higher in Holstein and crossbred cattle while in Jersey breed, the frequency of this allele was intermediate. The effect of genotype on birth weight was significant and LV genotype had higher birth weight than other genotypes. Hence, LV genotype in Holstein Friesian favored higher birth weight.


Association;Birth Weight;Buffalo;Cattle;Growth Hormone Gene;Polymorphism


  1. Chikumi, K., F. Terada, T. Kageyama, S. Kato and K. Ozutsumi. 1991. Identification of DNA sequence variants for amino acid residue 127 of bovine growth hormone using polymerase chain reaction method. Jpn. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 62:660-666.
  2. Chung, E. R., W. T. Kim and C. S. Lee. 1998. DNA polymorphism of k-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin gene in Korean cattle. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 11:422-427.
  3. Gelato, M. C. 1993. Growth hormone, insulin like growth factor I and immune function. Trends Endocrinol. Met. 4:106.
  4. Grochowska, R., A. Lunden, L. Zwierchowski, M. Snochowski and J. Oprzadek. 2001. Association between gene polymorphism of growth hormone and carcass traits in dairy bulls. Anim. Sci. 72:441-447.
  5. Bauman, D. E. and S. N. McCutcheon. 1986. The effects of growth hormone and prolactin on metabolism. In: Control of digestion and metabolism in ruminants (Ed. L. P. Milligan, W. I. Grovum and A. Dobson). Prentice-Hall, England Cliffs. N.J. p. 436.
  6. Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1967. Statistical methods. 6th Ed. Oxford and IBM Publishing Co., New Delhi.
  7. Zwierzchowski, L., J. Oprzadek, E. Dymnicki and P. Dzierzbicki. 2001. An association of growth hormone, kappa-casein, betalactoglobulin, leptin and pit-1 loci polymorphism with growth rate and carcass traits in beef cattle. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep. 19:65-77.
  8. Golde, D. W., N. Bersch and C. H. Li. 1977. Growth hormone : species specific stimulation of erythropoiesis in vitro. Science 196:1112-1113.
  9. Lechniak, D., G. Machnik, M. Szydlowski and M. Switonski. 1999. Growth hormone gene polymorphism and reproduction performance of AI bulls. Theriogenology 52:1145-1152.
  10. Sabour, M. P., C. Y. Lin and C. Smith. 1997. Association of genetic variants of bovine growth hormone with milk production traits in Holstein cattle. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 114:435-442.
  11. Schlee, P., R. Grami, O. Rottmann and F. Pirchner. 1994. Influence of growth hormone genotype on breeding value of Simmental bulls. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 111:253-256.
  12. Sambrook, J., E. F. Fritsch and T. Maniatis. 1989. Molecular Cloning: A laboratory Manual. 2nd Ed. Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press, New York.
  13. Falconer, D. S. 1998. Introduction to Quantitative genetics. 4th Ed. Addison wesley Longman Ltd. Essex, England.
  14. Neathery, M. W., C. T. Crowe, G. F. Hartnell, J. J. Veensuizen, J. O. Reagean and D. M. Blackmon. 1991. Effects of sometribove on performance, carcass composition and chemical blood characteristics of dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3933-3939.
  15. Spiteri, G. J. and E. Nieschlag. 1993. Paracrine factors relevant to the regulation of spermatogenesis-A review. J. Reprod. Fertil. 98:1-14.
  16. Citek, J., A. Flistowich, V. Rehout and V. Neubauerova. 2000. Comparison of growth hormone and alpha-casein gene polymorphism in Polish Red and German Red cattle breeds. J. Appl. Genet. 41:181-185.
  17. Lien, S., S. Rogne, M. J. Brovold and P. Alestrom. 1990. A method of isolation of DNA from frozen (A.I.) bull semen. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 107:74.

Cited by

  1. Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene and its Association with Expected Milk Production Traits in Dairy Bulls vol.27, pp.1, 2005,