DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Herbs and Botanicals as Feed Additives in Monogastric Animals

  • Wenk, Caspar (Institute of Animal Sciences, ETH Zurich)
  • Published : 2003.02.01

Abstract

Animal feed additives are used worldwide for many different reasons. Some help to cover the needs of essential nutrients and others to increase growth performance, feed intake and therefore optimize feed utilization. The health status of animals with a high growth performance is a predominant argument in the choice of feed additives. The use of feed additives is more and more questioned by the consumers. Therefore, the feed industry is highly interested in valuable alternatives which could be accepted by the consumers. Probiotics, prebiotics, enzymes and highly available minerals as well as herbs can be seen as alternatives. Herbs, spices and their extracts (botanicals) have a wide range of activities. They can stimulate feed intake and endogenous secretions or have antimicrobial, coccidiostatic or anthelmintic activity. A major field of application of herbs is the protection of animals and their products against oxidation.

Keywords

Feed Additives;Herbs;Botanicals;Essential Oils;Pig;Poul

References

  1. Gerber, A. 1997. Salvia Officinalis L. als Futteradditiv in der Schweinemast. Ph.D. Dissertation, Veterin$\"{a}$rmedizinische Universit$\"{a}$t, Vienna.
  2. Papadopoulos, G. and D. Boskou. 1991. Antioxidant effect of natural phenols on olive oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 68:669-671. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02662292
  3. Rosen, G. D. 1996. Feed additive nomenclature. World's Poultry Sci. J. 52:53-56. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19960005
  4. Scheeder, M. R. L. 2000. Internal research report. Institute of Animal Science. Nutritionbiology, ETH-Z Zuerich, Switzerland.
  5. Deans, S. G., R. C. Noble, L. Penzes and S. G. Imre. 1993. Promotional effects of plant volatile oils on the polyunsaturated fatty acid status during aging. Age 16:71-74. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02435040
  6. Lis-Balchin, M. and S. G. Deans. 1998. Studies on the potential usage of mixtures of plant essential oils as synergistic antibacterial agents in foods. Phytotherapy Research 12:472-475. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199811)12:7<472::AID-PTR335>3.0.CO;2-H
  7. Wiseman, S. A., J. N. Mathot, F. N. de. and L. B. Tijburg. 1996. Dietary non-tocopherol antioxidants present in extra virgin olive oil increase the resistance of low density lipoproteins to oxidation in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 120:15-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(95)05656-4
  8. Wenk, C., M. R. L. Scheeder and C. Spleiss. 1998. Sind Kr$\"{a}$uter Allerheilsmittel? In: Gesunde Nutztiere: Umdenken in der Tierern$\"{a}$hrung? (Ed. F. Sutter, M. Kreuzer and C. Wenk). pp. 95-109.
  9. Samarasinghe, K. and C. Wenk. 2002. der Berge, Schriftenreihe aus dem Institut f$\"{u}$r Nutztierwissenschaften (Ed. M. Kreuzer, C. Wenk and T. Lanzini). 23:124-125.
  10. Scheeder, M. R. L., K. R. Glaser, D. Schworer and C. Wenk. 1998. Oxidative Stability and Texture Properties of Fermented Sausage Produced from Pork Differing in Fatty Acid Composition. 44st ICoMST, Barcelona, 30.8.-4.9.1998, 'Meat Consumption and Culture'. Congress Proceedings, Published by Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology (IRTA) and EUROCARNE: 866-867.
  11. Straub, R., S. Gebert, C. Wenk and M. Wanner. 2002. Einfluss von chinesischem Rhabarber im Ferkelfutter auf die N$\"{a}$hrstoff- und Energieverwertung wachsender Schweine. In: Optimale Nutzung der Futterressourcen im Zusammenspiel von BergundTalgebiet. Ein Beitrag zum Internationalen Jahr der Berge Schriftenreihe aus dem Institut f$\"{u}$r Nutztierwissenschaften, (Ed. M. Kreuzer, C. Wenk and T. Lanzini). 23:130-133.
  12. Huang K. C. 1999. The pharmacology of Chinese herbs. CRC Press Inc.; Boca Raton, Florida, USA. p. 512.
  13. Spring et al., 1998. Personal communication.
  14. Webster's Encyclopedic Cambridge Dictionary of the English Language (1989). Gramercy Books, New York.
  15. Bye R. and E. Linares. 1999. Medicinal plant diversity in Mexico and its potential for animal health sciences. In: Proc. Alltech's 15th Annual Symp. on Biotechnology in the Feed Industry. Ed. T.P. Lyons and K.A. Jacques. 265-294.
  16. Gebert, S., F. Stahel, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk. 1999b. Rhubarb als Alternative zu antimikrobiellen Leistungsf$\"{o}$rderern (AML) im Ferkel- und Broilerfutter. In: Gesunde Nutztiere: Umdenken in der Tierern$\"{a}$hrung? (Ed. F. Sutter, M. Kreuzer and C. Wenk). pp. 165-166.
  17. Hirasa K. and M. Takemasa. 1998. Spice science and technology. Marcel Dekker, New York, p. 220.
  18. Saija, A., D. Trombetta, A. Tomaino, R. LoCascio, P. Princi, N. Uccella, F. Bonina and F. Castelli. 1998. 'In vitro' evaluation of the antioxidant activity and biomembrane interaction of the plant phenols oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. International J. Pharmaceutics 166:123-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-5173(98)00018-0
  19. Baratta, M. T., H. J. Damien Dorman, S. G. Deans, D. M. Biondi and G. Ruberto. 1998. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of Laurel, Sage, Rosemary, Oregano and Coriander Essentials Oils. J. Essentl. Oil. Res. 10:618-627. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1998.9700989
  20. Baldioli, M., M. Servili, G. Perretti and G. F. Montedoro. 1996. Antioxidant activity of tocopherols and phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 73:1589-1593. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02523530
  21. IFPRI, International Food Policy Research Institute. 1999. Livestock to 2020. The next food revolution. Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper 28, by Delgado, C., Rosegrant, M., Steinfeld, H., Ehui, S., Courbois, C.
  22. Lopez-Bote, C. J., J. K. Gray, E. A. Gomaa and C. J. Flegal. 1998. Effect of dietary administration of oil extracts from rosemary and sage on lipid oxidation in broiler meat. Br. Poult. Sci. 39:235-240. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669889187
  23. Scheeder, M. R. L., C. Spleiss, H. Bossi and C. Wenk. 1999. Screening of chinese herbs as antioxidants for their use in diets of farm animals. Schweizer Forschung begegnet Hunger und Armut. 1. Forum f$\"{u}$r Internationale Landwirtschaft, ETH Z$\"{u}$rich, 30.3. 1999, http://www.sfiar.infoagrar.ch/documents/posters/scheeder.pdf
  24. Visioli, F., G. Bellomo and C. Galli. 1998. Free radical-scavenging properties of olive oil polyphenols. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 247:60-64. https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1998.8735
  25. Gebert, S., R. Messikommer and C. Wenk. 1999a. Chinesische Kr$\"{a}$uter im Ferkelfutter. In: Gesunde Nutztiere: Umdenken in der Tierern$\"{a}$hrung? (Sutter, F., Kreuzer, M. and Wenk, C., ed) pp. 163-164.
  26. Deans, S. G. and G. Ritchie. 1987. Antibacterial properties of plant essential oils. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 5:165-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(87)90034-1
  27. Visioli, F., G. Bellomo, G. Montedoro and C. Galli. 1995. Low density lipoprotein oxidation is inhibited in vitro by olive oil constituents. Atherosclerosis 117:25-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(95)05546-9
  28. Halliwell, B., R. Aeschbach, J. Loeliger and O. I. Aruoma. 1995. The characterization of antioxidants. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33:601-617. https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(95)00024-V
  29. Wenk, C. and R. Messikommer. 2002. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) als Futterzusatzstoff bei Legehennen. In: Optimale Nutzung der Futterressourcen im Zusammenspiel von Berg- und Talgebiet. Ein Beitrag zum Internationalen Jahr der Berge,Schriftenreihe aus dem Institut f$\"{u}$r Nutztierwissenschaften (Ed. M. Kreuzer, C. Wenk and T. Lanzini). 23:121-123.
  30. FAOSTAT. 1998. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Data Base. Faostat.fao.org.
  31. Glaser, K.R., M. R. L. Scheeder and C. Wenk. 1999. Influence of C 18 - monoenoic- and polyenoic fatty acids in feedstuff on the fat properties in pigs. In: 5.Tagung Schweine- und Gefl$\"{u}$gelern$\"{a}$hrung (1.-3.12.1998), Martin-Luther-Universit$\"{a}$t Halle-Wittenberg (Ed. H. Jeroch, H. Nonn, K. Eder and Hrsg). pp. 32-35.
  32. Rhodes, M. C. 1996. Physiologically-active compounds in plant foods: an overview. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 55: 371-384. https://doi.org/10.1079/PNS19960036

Cited by

  1. No impact of a phytogenic feed additive on digestion and unspecific immune reaction in piglets vol.91, pp.9-10, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2006.00671.x
  2. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves vol.42, pp.5, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-009-9514-5
  3. Dietary plant bioactives for poultry health and productivity vol.51, pp.4, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2010.506908
  4. Performance of crossbred calves with dietary supplementation of garlic extract vol.95, pp.4, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01071.x
  5. Effect of Feeding Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) Powder on Meat Quality and Fatty acid Composition in Finishing Korean Native Black Pigs vol.31, pp.2, 2011, https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2011.31.2.224
  6. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission vol.55, pp.1, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-010-0356-7
  7. Effect of dietary plant extracts mixture on pork meat quality vol.61, pp.2, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1080/09064702.2011.599860
  8. The effects of dietary hesperidin supplementation on broiler performance and chicken meat characteristics vol.91, pp.2, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas10094
  9. Effects of fermented plant product on growth performance, some blood variables, carcase characteristics, and intestinal histology in broilers vol.53, pp.2, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2012.665435
  10. The effects of dietary hesperidin supplementation on lamb performance and meat characteristics vol.84, pp.2, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2012.01049.x
  11. Effects of oregano on performance and immunmodulating factors in weaned piglets vol.67, pp.6, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2013.858897
  12. Effect of dietary garlic supplementation on lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation biomarkers of tissues as well as some serum biochemical parameters in common carp Cyprinus carpio vol.79, pp.4, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12562-013-0629-2
  13. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on hen performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability vol.55, pp.1, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2013.870328
  14. Effects of essential oil supplementation of a low-energy diet on performance, intestinal morphology and microflora, immune properties and antioxidant activities in weaned pigs vol.86, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12277
  15. The effects of quercetin dietary supplementation on broiler growth performance, meat quality, and oxidative stability vol.93, pp.8, 2014, https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03585
  16. The Influence of Naringin or Hesperidin Dietary Supplementation on Broiler Meat Quality and Oxidative Stability vol.10, pp.10, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141652
  17. WELFARE OF BROILERS INGESTING A PRE-SLAUGHTER HYDRIC DIET OF LEMON GRASS vol.17, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-635x1703301-306
  18. Treatment on Ammonia flux in Duck Litter vol.24, pp.10, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5322/JESI.2015.24.10.1309
  19. Dietary Phytoncide Supplementation Improved Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Finishing Pigs vol.29, pp.9, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0309
  20. Potential of bamboo vinegar with liquid probiotics on growth performance, fecal microbiology and fecal odorous gas emissions from finishing pigs vol.10, pp.11, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR2016.7936
  21. Effects of fenugreek seed extract supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea scores, blood profiles, faecal microflora and faecal noxious gas emission in weanling piglets vol.100, pp.6, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12496
  22. extract mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles and meat quality in finishing pigs vol.15, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2016.1202736
  23. Effects of Whey Powder Supplementation on Dry-Aged Meat Quality vol.36, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.397
  24. Effect of different levels of Lepidium sativum L. on growth performance, carcass characteristics, hematology and serum biochemical parameters of broilers vol.5, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-3118-0
  25. Nutrigenomic evaluation of garlic (Allium sativum) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and immune characteristics in broilers vol.10, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2017.121-129
  26. leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens vol.101, pp.09312439, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12634
  27. L.) essential oil improves growth rate and oxidative status in outdoor-reared, but not indoor-reared, pigs vol.101, pp.5, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12612
  28. Effect of dietary supplementation of Ligustrum lucidum on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period vol.11, pp.11, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731117000532
  29. Evaluation of essential oil or/and emulsifier in low energy density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood cholesterol and meat quality in finishing pigs vol.16, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.1325718
  30. In vitro control of parasitic nematodes of small ruminants using some plant species containing flavonoids vol.49, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-016-1203-6
  31. Effects of dietary supplementation of cinnamaldehyde and formic acid on growth performance, intestinal microbiota and immune response in broiler chickens vol.57, pp.5, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15816
  32. Encapsulated benzoic acid supplementation in broiler diets influences gut bacterial composition and activity vol.58, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2016.1262000
  33. Comparison of the effects of dietary supplementation of flavonoids on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg nutrient profile vol.58, pp.5, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2017.1349297
  34. Dietary inclusion effects of phytochemicals as growth promoters in animal production vol.59, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-017-0133-9
  35. The effect of eubiotic feed additives on the performance of growing pigs and the activity of intestinal microflora vol.71, pp.6, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2017.1390181
  36. Beneficial uses of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds as a feed additive in poultry nutrition vol.73, pp.04, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043933917000848
  37. Effect of black cumin seeds on growth performance, nutrient utilization, immunity, gut health and nitrogen excretion in broiler chickens vol.97, pp.11, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8237
  38. Phytobiotics in poultry and swine nutrition – a review pp.1828-051X, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.1350120
  39. Effects of Herbiotic FS supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, and faecal scores in weanling pigs vol.46, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2017.1386108
  40. Studies on the effects of essential-oil-based feed additives on performance, ileal nutrient digestibility, and selected bacterial groups in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets1 vol.89, pp.7, 2011, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-2950
  41. The influence of the plant essential oils on internal qualitative parameters and microbiological indicators of hens eggs content vol.58, pp.4, 2014, https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201058040013
  42. Effects of dietary supplementation of natural and fermented herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, meat quality and fatty acid composition in growing-finishing pigs pp.1828-051X, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2018.1429955
  43. Effect of Dietary Lactobacillus, Medicinal Plants Extract, Herb Extract on the Laying Performance, Cecal Microflora, Relative Organs Weight, Leucocyte Profiles in Laying Hens against Salmonella gallinarum vol.45, pp.3, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5536/KJPS.2018.45.3.183
  44. Influence of four tropical medicinal and aromatic plants on growth performance, digestibility, and blood constituents of rabbits pp.1572-9680, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-018-0322-7
  45. Immune status and haemato-biochemical profile of buffalo calves supplemented with phytogenic feed additives rich in tannins, saponins and essential oils pp.1573-7438, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1727-z
  46. Effects of feeding diets containing essential oils and betaine to heat-stressed growing-finishing pigs vol.72, pp.5, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2018.1492806
  47. Effect of supplementing milk replacer with aromatic oregano (Oreganum onites L.) water on performance, immunity and general health profiles of Holstein calves vol.58, pp.10, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16574
  48. Growth performance, digestibility, haematology, biochemistry, and some humoral immunity blood parameters of broiler chickens fed different levels of Boswellia serrata resin vol.58, pp.10, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16767
  49. Pasture, multi-enzymes, benzoic acid and essential oils positively influence performance, intestinal organ weight and egg quality in free-range laying hens vol.59, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2017.1403566
  50. Effect of dietary phytogenics (herbal mixture) supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, antioxidative properties, and immune response in broilers vol.25, pp.15, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1685-z
  51. Enzymes and/or combination of organic acid and essential oils supplementation in pasture-fed free-range laying hens increased the digestibility of nutrients and non-starch polysaccharides vol.98, pp.3, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey479
  52. Effects of microencapsulated complex of organic acids and essential oils on growth performance, nutrient retention, blood profiles, fecal microflora, and lean meat percentage in weaning to finishing pigs vol.99, pp.1, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2018-0006
  53. Effect of supplemented microencapsulated zinc oxide and organic acids and pure botanicals on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, feces microflora, and zinc level of feces in weanling pigs vol.99, pp.1, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2017-0114