DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Past and Present Definitions of the Energy and Protein Requirements of Ruminants

  • Corbett, J.L. (Animal Science, University of New England) ;
  • Freer, M. (CSIRO Plant Industry)
  • Published : 2003.04.01

Abstract

The genesis of methods for defining the nutritional value of feeds and the nutrient requirements of animals, and their development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Europe and the USA are outlined. Current energy and protein feeding systems for ruminants are described. Particular reference is made to the Australian systems which are applicable to grazing animals as well as to those given prepared feeds, and enable the effective nutritional management of a imals at pasture by means of the decision support tool GrazFeed. The scheme for predicting intakes by cattle and sheep from pastures allows for the effects of selective grazing on the composition of the feed eaten, and for reduction in herbage intake when a supplementary feed is consumed. For herbage of any given concentration of metabolizable energy (ME) in the feed dry matter the changes with season of year in the net efficiency of use of the ME for growth and fattening and in the yield of microbial crude protein, g/MJ ME, which both vary with latitude, are defined. An equation to predict the energy requirements for maintenance (MEm) of both cattle and sheep includes predictions of the additional energy costs incurred by grazing compared with housed animals and the cost, if any, of cold stress. The equation allows for the change in MEm with feed intake. A flexible procedure predicts the composition of liveweight gain made by any given breed or sex of cattle and sheep at any stage of growth, and the variation with rate of gain. Protein requirements for maintenance, production including wool growth, and reproduction, are related to the quantities of microbial true protein and undegraded dietary protein truly digested in the small intestine.

Keywords

Cattle;Sheep;Nutrient Requirements;Energy;Protein;Feed Value;Feeding System

References

  1. AFRC. 1990. Agricultural and Food Research Council Technical Committee on Responses to Nutrients, Report No. 5, Nutritive requirements of ruminant animals: Energy. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. Series B. 60:729-804.
  2. ARC. 1965. The Nutrient Requirements of Farm Livestock. No. 2. Ruminants. Agricultural Research Council, HMSO, London.
  3. Armsby, H. P. 1917. The Nutrition of Farm Animals. Macmillan, New York.
  4. Bell, A. K. and C. J. Allan. 2000. Prograze-an extension package in grazing and pasture management. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 40:325-330. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA98017
  5. Blaxter, K. L. 1956. The nutritive value of feeds as sources of energy: a review. J. Dairy Sci. 39:1396-1424. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(56)94865-2
  6. Breirem, K. 1952. Oscar Kellner; a biography. J. Nutr. 47:1-10.
  7. Corbett, J. L., E. P. Furnival, M.W.Inskip, F.S. Pickering and J. Plaza. 1980. Pasture intake and heat production of breeding ewes. In: Energy Metabolism. L. E. Mount (Ed.). Butterworths, London, pp. 319-323.
  8. EAAP. 1958. Symposium on Energy Metabolism. G. Thorbek and H. Aers$\Phi$e (Ed.). Publ. No. 8. European Association for Animal Production, Rome, Italy.
  9. Ernle, The Lord. 1936. English Farming, Past and Present. 5th Edition revised by A. D. Hall. Longmans Green, London.
  10. Graham, N. McC. (1982) Energy feeding standards: a methodological problem. In: Proceedings of the 9th EAAP Symposium on the Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals. A. Ekern. and F. Sundst$\Phi$l (Ed.). Agricultural University of Norway, 1432 Aas-NLH, Norway, pp.108-111.
  11. Kempton, T. J. 1979. Protein to energy ratio of absorbed nutrients in relation to wool growth. In: Physiological and Environmental Limitations to Wool Growth. J. L. Black and P. J. Reis (Ed.). University of New England Publishing Unit, Armidale, NSW, Australia, pp.43-59.
  12. McDonald, I. W. 1954. The extent of conversion of food protein to microbial protein in the rumen of sheep. Biochem. J. 56:120-125. https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0560120
  13. NRC. 1985. Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, 6th Edition. National Academy Press, Washington D. C.
  14. Schiemann, R, K. Nehring, L. Hoffmann, W. Jentsch and A. Chudy. 1971. Energetische Futterbewertung und Energienormen. VEB Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin.
  15. Waters, C. J., M. A. Kitcherside and A. J. F. Webster. 1992. Problems associated with estimating the digestibility of undegraded dietary nitrogen from acid-detergent insoluble nitrogen. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 39:279-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(92)90047-A
  16. Phillipson, A. T. 1959. Sheep. In: Scientific Principles of Feeding Farm Livestock. Farmer and Stockbreeder Publications, London, pp.105-119.
  17. Corbett, J. L. 1987. Energy and protein utilization by grazing animals. In: Temperate Pastures: Production Use and Management J. L. Wheeler, C. J. Pearson and G. E. Robards (Ed.). The Australian Wool Corporation/CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 341-355.
  18. Corbett, J. L. and F. S. Pickering. 1983. Rumen microbial degradation and synthesis of protein in grazing sheep. In: Feed Information and Animal Production. G. E. Robards and R. G. Packham (Ed.). Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK, pp. 301-302.
  19. Hatch, M. D. and C. R. Slack. 1970. The C4-dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis. In: Progress in Phytochemistry 2. I. Rheinhold and Y. Liwschitz. (Ed.). Interscience, London, pp.35-106.
  20. Leitch, I. 1972. Review of Schiemann et al. (1971). Nutr. Abstr. Rev. 42:419-420.
  21. Young, B. A. and J. L. Corbett. 1972. Maintenance energy requirement of grazing sheep in relation to herbage availability. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 23:57-76. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9720057
  22. Graham, N. McC., T. W. Searle and D. A. Griffiths. 1974. Basal metabolic rate in lambs and young sheep. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 25:957-971. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9740957
  23. Kebreab, E., J. France, R. E. Agnew, T. Yan, M.S. Dhanoa, J. Djikstra, D. E. Beever and C. K. Reynolds. 2003. Alternatives to linear analysis of energy balance data from lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. (in press).
  24. Corbett, J. L., E. P. Furnival and F. S. Pickering. 1982. Energy expenditure at pasture of shorn and unshorn Border Leicester ewes during late pregnancy and lactation. In: Proceedings of the 9th EAAP Symposium on Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals. A. Ekern and F. Sunst$\Phi$l (Ed.). Agricultural University of Norway, 1432 Aas-NLH, Norway, pp.34-37.
  25. Kellner, O. 1905. Die Ern$\"{a}$hrung der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztiere. Paul Parey, Berlin. English translation by W. Goodwin (1909) The Scientific feeding of Farm Animals. Duckworth, London.
  26. Dijkstra, J., H. D.StC. Neal, D. E. Beever and J. France. (1992). Simulation of nutrient digestion, absorption and outflow in the rumen: model description. J. Nutr. 122:2239-2256.
  27. Leitch, I. 1959. Discussion on nutrient requirements of dairy cows. In: Scientific Principles of Feeding Farm Livestock. Farmer and Stockbreeder Publications, London, pp.36-38.
  28. NRC. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th Edition. National Academy Press, Washington D. C.
  29. Searle, T. W., N. McC. Graham and M. O'Callaghan. 1972. Growth in sheep. I. The chemical composition of the body. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 79:371-382. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600025727
  30. Virtanen, A. I. 1966. Milk production on a protein-free feed, using urea and ammonium salts as the sole source of nitrogen. Proceedings of the 10th International Grassland Congress, Helsinki, pp.19-29.
  31. Forbes, E. B., W. W. Braman, M. Kriss, J. A. Fries, C.D. Jeffries, R. W. Swift, R. B. French and J. V. Maucher. 1927. Net energy values of corn silage, soybean hay, alfalfa hay, and oats. J. Agric. Res. 34:785-796.
  32. NRC. 1996. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 7th Edition. National Academy Press, Washington D. C.
  33. NRC. 1935. Report of the Conference on Energy Metabolism, State College, Pennsylvania. National Research Council, Washington D. C.
  34. $\Phi$rskov, E. R., D. A. Grubb, G. Wenham and W. Corrigall. 1979. The sustenance of growing and fattening ruminants by intragastric infusion of volatile fatty acids and protein. Br. J. Nutr. 41:553-558. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19790070
  35. Tyler, C. 1975. Albrecht Thaer's hay equivalents: fact or fiction? Nutr. Abstr. Rev. Series B. 45:1-11.
  36. AFRC. 1993. Energy and Protein Requirements of Ruminants. Advisory Manual, Agricultural and Food Research Council Technical Committee on Responses to Nutrients. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.
  37. Blaxter, K. L., V. R. Fowler and J. C. Gill. 1982. A study of the growth of sheep to maturity. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 98:405-420. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600041952
  38. Garrett, W. N. 1980. Energy utilization by growing cattle as determined in 72 comparative slaughter experiments. In: Energy Metabolism. L.E. Mount (Ed.). Butterworths, London, pp.3-7.
  39. MAFF. 1975. Energy Allowances and Feeding Systems for Ruminants. UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Technical Bulletin No. 33.
  40. McDonald, I. W. 1950. The nature of dietary protein in relation to its utilization by the ruminant. Advancement of Science. 6:347-348.
  41. Nagorcka, B. N., G.L.R. Gordon and R. A. Dynes. (2000). Towards a more accurate representation of fermentation in mathematical models of the rumen. In: Modelling Nutrient Utilization in Farm Animals. J.P. McNamara, J. France and D.E. Beever (Ed.). CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, pp.37-48.
  42. Schiemann, R. 1958. $\"{U}$berden Aufbau von Respirationsapparaten f$\"{u}$r Grosstiere und Kleintiere im Oskar Kellner-Institut f$\"{u}$r Tierern$\"{a}$hrung, Rostock. Proceedings of the 1st EAAP Symposium on Energy Metabolism, Copenhagen, pp.29-42.
  43. ARC. 1980. The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. Technical review by an Agricultural Research Council Working Party. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK.
  44. SCA. 1990. Feeding Standards for Australian Livestock: Ruminants. Standing Committee on Agriculture and CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.
  45. ARC. 1984. Report of the Protein Group of the Agricultural Research Council Working Party on the Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK.
  46. Agnew, R. E. and T. Yan. 2000. Impact of recent research on energy feeding systems for dairy cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci. 66:197-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(00)00161-5
  47. Freer, M. and D.B. Jones. 1984. Feeding value of subterranean clover, lucerne, phalaris and Wimmera ryegrass for lambs. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb. 24:156-164. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA9840156
  48. Hogan, J. P., N. M. Elliott and A. D. Hughes. 1979. Maximum wool growth rates expected from Australian Merino genotypes. In: Physiological and Environmental Limitations to Wool Growth. J. L. Black J. and P. J.Reis (Ed.). University of New England Publishing Unit, Armidale, NSW, Australia, pp.43-59.
  49. Huffman, C. F. and C. W. Duncan. 1950. The nutritive value of alfalfa hay. IV. Beet pulp, corn gluten meal and soybean oil meal as supplements to an all-alfalfa hay ration for milk production. J. Dairy Sci. 33:710-720. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(50)91960-6
  50. Webster, A. J. F., I. P. Simmons and M. A. Kitcherside. 1982. Forage protein and the performance and health of the dairy cow. In: Forage Protein in Ruminant Animal Production. D.J. Thomson, D.E. Beever and R.G. Gunn (Ed.). British Society of Animal Production Occasional Publication No. 6, pp. 89-95.
  51. Corbett, J. L. and A. J. Ball. 2002. Nutrition for maintenance. In: Sheep Nutrition M. Freer and H. Dove (Ed.). CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, pp.143-163.
  52. Ingvartsen, K. L. 1994. Models of voluntary feed intake in cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci. 39:19-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(94)90149-X
  53. Corbett, J. L., M. Freer and N. McC. Graham. 1987. A generalized equation to predict the varying maintenance metabolism of sheep and cattle. In: Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals. P. W. Moe, H. F. Tyrrell and P.J. Reynolds (Eds.). Rowman and Littlefield, New Jersey, USA, pp.62-65.
  54. Corbett, J. L., J. P. Langlands, I. McDonald and J. D. Pullar. 1966. Comparison by direct animal calorimetry of the net energy values of an early and a late season growth of herbage. Anim. Prod. 8:13-27. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100037661
  55. Freer, M., A. D. Moore and J. R. Donnelly. 1997. GrazPlan: Decision support systems for Australian grazing enterprises. II. The animal biology model for feed intake, production and reproduction and the GrazFeed DSS. Agric. Systems 54:77-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-521X(96)00045-5
  56. Nehring, K. and G. F. W. Haenlein. 1973. Feed evaluation and ration calculation based on net energy. J. Anim. Sci. 36:949-964. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1973.365949x
  57. Schiemann, R. 1977. The evaluation of roughages under the GDR feed evaluation system. Proceedings of the 13th International Grassland Congress, Leipzig. E. Wojahn and H. Thons (Ed). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin.
  58. Wood, T. B. 1921. Rations for Livestock, 1st Edition. UK Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Bulletin No. 48.
  59. AFRC. 1992. Agricultural and Food Research Council Technical Committee on Responses to Nutrients, Report No. 9, Nutritive requirements of ruminant animals: Protein. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. Series B. 62:787-835.
  60. Dove, H. and J. A. Milne. 1994. Digesta flow and rumen microbial production in ewes grazing perennial ryegrass. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 45:1229-1245. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9941229
  61. Russell, J. B., J. D. O'Connor, D. G. Fox, P.J. Van Soest and C. J. Sniffen. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. I. Ruminal fermentation. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3551-3661. https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.70113551x
  62. Swift, R. W. 1957. The caloric value of TDN. J. Anim. Sci. 16:753-760. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1957.164753x
  63. Woodman, H. E. 1948. Rations for Livestock, 11th Edition. UK Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Bulletin No. 48.
  64. van der Honing, Y. and G. Alderman. 1988. Livestock feed resources and feed evaluation in Europe. Feed evaluation and nutritional requirements. III. Ruminants. Livest. Prod. Sci. 19:217-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(88)90092-9
  65. Wright, I. A. and A. J. F. Russel. 1984. The composition and energy content of empty body weight change in mature cattle. Anim. Prod. 39:365-369. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100032086
  66. Armsby, H. P. 1909. The computation of rations for farm animals by the use of energy values. U.S. Dept. Agric. Farmers' Bulletin No. 346.

Cited by

  1. Replacement of Cereal with Low Starch Fibrous By-Products on Nutrients Utilization and Methane Emissions in Dairy Goats vol.05, pp.02, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2015.52022
  2. Effect of replacing dietary corn with beet pulp on energy partitioning, substrate oxidation and methane production in lactating dairy goats vol.55, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN13119