Effects of Timing of Initial Cutting and Subsequent Cutting on Yields and Chemical Compositions of Cassava Hay and Its Supplementation on Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Hong, N.T.T. (Dairy research and Training Center, Institute of Agricultural Science of South Vietnam) ;
  • Wanapat, M. (Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Wachirapakorn, C. (Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Pakdee, P. (Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Rowlinson, P. (Department of Agriculture, University of Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU)
  • Received : 2003.02.03
  • Accepted : 2003.03.25
  • Published : 2003.12.01


Two experiments were conducted to examine the production and quality of cassava hay and its utilization in diets for dairy cows. In experiment I, a $2{\times}2$ Factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications was carried out to determine the effects of different initial (IC) and subsequent cutting (SC) on yield and composition of cassava plant. The results revealed that cassava could produce from 4 to 7 tonne of DM and 1.2 to 1.6 tonne of CP for the first six months after planting. CP content in cassava plant ranged from 20.8 to 28.5% and was affected by different SC regimes. Condensed tannin in cassava foliage ranged from 4.9 to 5.5%. Initial cutting at 2 months with subsequent cutting at 2 month intervals was the optimal to obtain high dry matter and protein yield. In the second experiment, five crossbred Holstein-Friesian cows in mid lactation with an initial live-weight of 505${\pm}6.1kg$ and average milk yield of 10.78${\pm}1.2kg/d$ were randomly assigned in a $5{\times}5$ Latin square design to study the effects of 2 levels of CH (1 and 2 kg/hd/d) and concentrate (1 to 2 kg of milk and 1 to 3 kg of milk) on milk yield and milk composition. The results showed that cassava hay increased rumen $NH_3-N$ and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) (p<0.05). Cassava hay tended to increase milk production and 4% FCM. Milk protein increased in cows fed cassava hay (p<0.05). Moreover, cassava hay could reduce concentrate levels in dairy rations thus resulting in increased economic returns. Cassava hay can be a good source of forage to reduce concentrate supplementation and improve milk quality.


Cassava Hay;Cutting;Foliage;Milk Yield and Compositions;Concentrate;Rumen Environment;Dairy Cows


  1. DePeters, E. L. and J. D. Ferguson. 1992. Nonprotein nitrogen and protein distribution in the milk of cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3742-3746.
  2. Hwang, S. Y., M. J. Lee and H. C. Peh. 2001. Diurnal variation in milk and blood urea nitrogen and whole blood ammonia nitrogen in dairy cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1683-1689.
  3. Khang, N. D. and H. Wiktorsson. 2000. Effect of cassava leaf meal on ruminant environment of yellow cattle fed urea-treated paddy straw. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1102-1108.
  4. Oltner, R., M. Emanuelson and H. Wiktorrson. 1985. Urea concentration in milk relation to milk yield, live weight, lactation number and amout and composition of feed given to dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 12:47-57.
  5. Petlum, A., M. Wanapat and S. Wanapat. 2001. Effects of planting space and cutting frequency on cassava hay yield and chemical composition. In: Proc. the international workshop on current research and development on use as cassava as animal feed, organized by Khon Kaen University and Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) and Swdish Agency for Research and Cooperation with Developing Countries (SAREC), July 23-24, Kosa Hotel, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  6. Song, M. K. and J. J. Kennelly. 1989. In situ degradation of feed ingredients, fermentation pattern and microbial population as influenced by ruminal ammonia concentration. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 69:999-1006.
  7. Wanapat, M. and C. Devendra. 1999. Feeding and nutrition of dairy cattle and buffaloes in Asia. In Feeding of Ruminants in The Tropics Based on Local Feed Resources. (Ed. M. Wanapat). Khon Kaen publishing house company Ltd. Khon Kaen, Thailand. pp. 1-20.
  8. Hwang, S. Y., M. J. Lee and P. W. Chiou. 2000. Monitoring nutritional status of dairy cows using milk protein and milk urea nitrogen. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1667-1673.
  9. Song, M. K. and J. J. Kennelly. 1990. Ruminal fermentation pattern, bacterial population and ruminal degradation of feed ingredients as influenced by ammonia concentration. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1110-1120.
  10. Balogun, R. O., R. J. Jones and J. H. G. Holmes. 1998. Digestibility of some tropical browse specie varying in tannin content. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 76:77-88.
  11. Burns, R. E. 1971. Method for estimation of tannin in grain sorghum. Agron. J. 63:511-512.
  12. Cannas, A., A. Pes, R. Mancuso, B. Vodret and A. Nudda. 1998. Effect of dietary protein and protein concentration on the concentration of milk urea nitrogen in dairy ewes. J. Dairy. Sci. 81:499-508.
  13. Wanapat, M., A. Peltum and O. Pimpa. 2000a. Supplementation of cassava hay to replace concentrate use in lactating Holstein Friesian crossbreds. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:600-604.
  14. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robesrtson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Method for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharide in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  15. Livestock research for rural development. 9(2): LRRD home page.
  16. Wanapat, M., T. Puramongkon and W. Siphuak. 2000b. Feeding of cassava hay for lactating cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13: 478-482.
  17. Moore, C. P. and J. H. Cock. 1985. Cassava foliage sillage as a feed source for Zebu calves in the tropic. Trop. Agric. 62:142-144.
  18. Cai, D. V., P. H. Hai, H. T. D. Trang, N. V. Tri, P. T. L. Dung and N. T. T. Van. 2000. Evaluate and improve the milk fat content of dairy cows kept in small household in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. Annual report of IAS.
  19. Phuc, B. H. N., R. B. Ogle, J. E. Linberg and T. R. Preston. 1996. The nutritive value of sun-dried and ensiled cassava leaf for growing pigs. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 8(3): LRRD home page.
  20. Oltner, R. and H. Wiktorrson. 1983. Urea concentration in milk and blood as influenced by feeding vary in amounts of protein and energy to dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 10:457-467.
  21. Tung, C. M., J. B. Liang, S. L. Tan, H. K. Ong and Z. A. Jelan. 2001. Fodder productivity and growth persistency of three local cassava varieties. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1253-1259.
  22. AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th edn. Association of official analytical chemists, Washington, DC., USA.
  23. Preston, T. R. and R. A. Leng. 1987. Matching Ruminant Production Systems with Available Resources in the Tropic and Sub-Tropics. Penambull Book Armidale, Australia.
  24. Poungchompu, O., S. Wanapat, A. Polthanee, C. Wachirapakorn and M. Wanapat. 2001. Effects of planting method and fertilization on cassava hay yield and chemical composition. In: Proc. the international workshop on current research and development on use as cassava as animal feed, organized by Khon Kaen University and Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) and Swdish Agency for Research and Cooperation with Developing Countries (SAREC), July 23-24, Kosa Hotel, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  25. Buscaglia, H. J., H. M. van Es, L. D. Geohring, H. C. A. M. Vermeulen, G. W. Fick and R. F. Lucey. 1994. Alfalfa yield and quality are affected by soil hydrologic conditions. Agron. J. 86:535-542.
  26. Hof, G., M. D. Vervoorn, P. J. Lenaers and S. Tamminga. 1995. Milk urea nitrogen as a tool to monitor the protein nutrition of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80:3333-3340.
  27. McDonald, P., R. A. Edwards, J. F. D. Grennhalgh and C. A. Morgan. 1996. Animal Nutrition. Longman Singapore Publisher (Pte) Ltd, Singapore.
  28. Wanapat, M., O. Pimpa, A. Petlum and U. Boontao. 1997. Cassava hay: A new strategic feed for ruminant during the dry season.
  29. Barry, T. N. 1989. Condensed tannin: their role in ruminant protein and carbohydrate digestion and possible effects upon the rumen ecosystem. In: The Roles of Protozoa and Fungi in Ruminant Digestion. (Ed. J. V. Nolan, R. A. Leng and D. I. Demeyer). Penambul Books, Armidale, Australia, pp. 153-169.
  30. Leng, R. 1999. Feeding strategies for improving milk production. In smallholder Dairy in the tropics. (Ed. L. Falvey and C. Chantalakhana) ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute). Nairobi, Kenya. pp. 207-224.
  31. Broderick, G. A. and M. K. Clayton. 1997. A statistical evaluation of animal and nutritional factors influencing concentration of milk urea nitrogen. J. Dairy Sci. 80:2964-2971.
  32. SAS Institute Inc. 1998. SAS/STAT User’s Guide: Version 6.12th Edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Cited by

  1. Potential uses of local feed resources for ruminants vol.41, pp.7, 2009,
  2. Effect of replacing alfalfa hay with a mixture of cassava foliage silage and sweet potato vine silage on ruminal and intestinal digestion in sheep pp.13443941, 2017,