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Fertility of Holstein Cows in Chengdu, China

  • Zi, X.D. (Department of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, South-west University for Nationalities) ;
  • Ma, L. (Department of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, South-west University for Nationalities) ;
  • Zhou, G.Q. (Fenghuang-shan Dairy Farm) ;
  • Chen, C.L. (Fenghuang-shan Dairy Farm) ;
  • Wei, G.M. (Fenghuang-shan Dairy Farm)
  • Received : 2002.05.27
  • Accepted : 2002.10.05
  • Published : 2003.02.01

Abstract

Data on the use of breeding records of dairy cattle farm of Fenghuang-shan in Chengdu areas during a period of six years is systematically analyzed. The results show that Holstein heifers have their 1st estrus at an average age of $513.6{\pm}46.7$ d which is not related to the calving season. Estrus mostly occurs in the months with mild ambient temperature (March, April, May, November and December). There is a very poor rate of estrus detection; only 30.0% successive estrus is observed within 24 d, 29.3% within 25-48 d, 40.6% over 48 d. The average number of insemination per conception is 1.50 for heifers and 1.74 for cows, but conception rate (CR) is lower in the relatively warm months (July, August and September) ranged from 48.1% to 51.9% compared with 58.1% to 68.5% in other months. High temperature is the most important factor affecting fertilization in warm months, but neither did CR decline immediately with the increased air temperature in June, nor did it increase immediately with the declined air temperature in September. Post partum anestrous period is $119.5{\pm}60.5$ d. The average interval from calving to conception is $159.4{\pm}85.6$ d with only 19.8% of the cows conceived within 85 d of calving. Cows with high milk yield have longer acyclic periods and lower conception rates. Improvement of efficient managements must be a precedent condition in Chengdu areas.

Keywords

Holstein;Estrus Detection;Conception Rate;Calving Interval

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