Genetic Trends for Laying Traits in the Brown Tsaiya (Anas platyrhynchos) Selected with Restricted Genetic Selection Index

  • Chen, D.T. (Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, Ilan Branch Institute, Council of Agriculture) ;
  • Lee, S.R. (Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, Changhua Animal Propagation Station, Council of Agriculture) ;
  • Hu, Y.H. (Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, Ilan Branch Institute, Council of Agriculture) ;
  • Huang, C.C. (Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, Ilan Branch Institute, Council of Agriculture) ;
  • Cheng, Y.S. (Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture) ;
  • Tai, C. (Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng-Kung University) ;
  • Poivey, J.P. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Station d'Amelioration Genetique des Animaux, Centre de Recherches de Toulouse) ;
  • Rouvier, R. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Station d'Amelioration Genetique des Animaux, Centre de Recherches de Toulouse, Department of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University)
  • Received : 2003.04.11
  • Accepted : 2003.08.20
  • Published : 2003.12.01


A small body size of Brown Tsaiya laying duck is desirable to reduce maintenance requirements, so the body weight at 40 weeks of age (BW40) has to be maintained at its current level. Egg weight has to be maintained at around 65 g to meet market requirements. Eggshell strength at 40 weeks of age (ES40) must to be increased in order to maintain a low incidence of broken eggs. Thus, number of eggs laid up to 52 weeks of age (EN52) has to be increased without negative correlated response on ES40. A new linear genetic selection index was used: $I_g=a_0{\times}GEW40\;(g)+a_1{\times}GBW40\;(g)+a_2{\times}GES40\;(kg/cm^2)+a_3{\times}GEN52\;(eggs)$ where GEW40, GBW40, GES40 and GEN52 were the multitrait best linear unbiased prediction (MT-BLUP) animal model predictors of the breeding values respectively of egg weight and body weight at 40 weeks of age (EW40, BW40), ES40 and EN52. The coefficients $a_0$, $a_1$, $a_2$ and $a_3$ were calculated with constraints of 0.0 g, 0.0 g and $0.013kg/cm^2$ for expected genetic gains in EW40, BW40 and ES40 respectively and maximum gain in EN52. Since 1997, the drakes and the ducks were selected according to their own indexes, with this new genetic selection index. From G0 to G4, the average per generation predicted genetic responses in female duck were +0.05 g for EW40, +0.92 g for BW40, $+0.035kg/cm^2$ for ES40 and +2.13 eggs for EN52. Which represented respectively 0.07%, 0.06%, 0.67% and 1.0% of the means of the EW40, BW40, ES40 and EN52. For ES40 and EN52, it represented also respectively 16.1% and 21.6% of the additive genetic standard deviation of these traits. Thevse results indicated that selection of laying Brown Tsaiya by a restricted genetic selection index and with MT-BLUP animal model could be an efficient tool for improving the efficiency of egg production, increasing egg shell strength and egg number while holding egg weight and body weight constants.


Genetic Trends;Restricted Genetic Selection Index;Laying Ducks


  1. Cheng, Y. S., R. Rouvier, J. P. Poivey and C. Tai. 1995. Genetic parameters of body weight, egg production and shell quality traits in the laying Brown Tsaiya duck. Genet. Sel. Evol. 27:459-472.
  2. Ducrocq, V. 1994. Multiple trait prediction: principles and problems. Proceedings of the 5th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, Vol. 18:455-462.
  3. Kennedy, B. W., L. R. Schaeffer and D. A. Sorensen. 1988. Genetic properties of animal models. J Dairy Sci. 71(suppl. 2):17-26.
  4. Rouvier, R. 1977. Mise au point sur le mod$\'{e}$le classique d'estimation de la valeur g$\'{e}$n$\'{e}$tique. Ann. G$\'{e}$n$\'{e}$t. S$\'{e}$l. Anim. 9(1):17-26.
  5. Tai, C. 1985. Duck breeding and artificial insemination in Taiwan. in: Duck Production Science and World Practice. (Ed. D. J. Farrell and P. Stapleton). University of New England, Armidale, Australia. pp. 193-203.
  6. Tai, C., Y. J. Huang, J. J. L. Tai and S. C. Chyr. 1994. The construction of constraint selection indices in laying duck. J. Chin. Soc. Anim. Sci. 23:355-360.
  7. Cheng, Y. S., J. P. Poivey, R. Rouvier and C. Tai. 1996. Prediction of genetic gains in body weight, egg production and shell quality traits in the Brown Tsaiya laying duck (Anas platyrhynchos). Genet. Sel. Evol. 28:443-455.
  8. Groeneveld, E. 1990. PEST user's manual. Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
  9. Lin, C. Y. 1990. A unified procedure of computing restricted best linear unbiased prediction and restricted selection index. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 107:311-316.
  10. Mallard, J. 1972. La th$\'{e}$orie et le calcul des index de s$\'{e}$lection avec restrictions: synthese critique. Biometrics 28:713-735.
  11. Rouvier, R. 1969. Pond$\'{e}$ration des valeurs g$\'{e}$notypiques dans la s$\'{e}$lection par index sur plusieurs caract$\'{e}$res. Biometrics 25:295-307.
  12. Lee, S. R., J. F. Huang, N. S. Sheu, S. Y. Chen, B. J. Chen, Y. N. Jiang, J. J. L. Tai and C. Tai. 1992. Study on the performance of Brown Tsaiya duck (Anas Platyrhynchos Var. Domestica). Taiwan Livestock Res. 25(1):35-48.
  13. Shen, T. F. and W. L. Chen. 2003. The role of magnesium and calcium in eggshell formation in Tsaiya ducks and Leghorn hens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:290-296.
  14. Tai, C., R. Rouvier and J. P. Poivey. 1989. Genetic parameters of some growth and egg production traits in laying Brown Tsaiya. Genet. Sel. Evol. 21:377-384.
  15. Groeneveld, E., M. Kovac, T. L. Wang and R. L. Fernando. 1992. Computing algorithms in a general purpose BLUP package for multivariate prediction and estimation. Arch Tierz Dummerstorf. 35(4):399-412.