Multistep Identification of γ-Irradiated Boiled-Dried Anchovies by Analysis of Thermoluminescence, Electron Spin Resonance, Hydrocarbon and 2-Alkylcyclobutanone

건멸치의 방사선 조사 확인을 위한 열발광, 전자스핀공명, Hydrocarbon 및 2-Alkylcyclobutanone의 다중분석

  • Published : 2003.02.01


Multistep detection was peformed to identify irradiated dried anchovy. In thermoluminescence (TL) analysis, non-irradiated samples represented a lower peak at about 28$0^{\circ}C$, but irradiated samples showed a higher peak at around 20$0^{\circ}C$. The normalization with a re-irradiation step at 1 kGy could verify the identification results. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy for bones separated from irradiated anchovy revealed specific signals (g=2.002,1.998) derived from a hydroxyapatite radical, which intensities were in proportion to the irradiation doses and still detectable even after 6 months of storage at -2$0^{\circ}C$. Six kinds of hydrocarbons (HC) were observed in dried anchovy samples and 1,7-hexadecadiene and 1-hexadecene were only detected in irradiated anchovy at 1 kGy or more. Also among 3 kinds of radiation-induced 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACB) observed, 2-dodecylcy-clobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone were unique in irradiated anchovy. As a result, the concentration of radiation-induced HCs and 2-ACBs were dependent on the irradiation dose and detectable after 6 months of storage. However, TL and ESR analyses were found simpler than the other methods for identification of irradiated boiled-dried anchovy.


  1. KATI. 2000. Korea agricultural trade information homepage.
  2. Korea Food Industry Association. 2001. Incongruent imported food. Food & Sanitation News, No. 113, 114, 116 & 117.
  3. Kwon JH, Byun MW. 1996. Effects of $\gamma$-irradiation and subsequent storage on amino acids and ribonucleotides of boiled anchovies. J Food Sci Nutr 1: 16-22.
  4. Kwon JH, Byun MW, Kim YH. 1996. Physicochemical quality of boiled-dried anchovies during post-irradiation period. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 25: 484-490.
  5. Han SB, Lee JH, Lee KH. 1973. Non-enzymatic browning reactions in dried anchovy when stored at different water activities. Bull Korean Fish Soc 6: 37-42.
  6. Chang DS, Choe WK. 1973. Bacteriological studies on market sea foods. 1. Sanitary indicative bacteria in sun-dried sea foods. Bull Korean Fish Soc 6: 87-95.
  7. Lee KH, Kim CY, You BJ, Jea YG. 1985. Effect of packaging on the quality stability and shelf-life of dried anchovy. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 14: 229-234.
  8. Jo KS, Kim YM, Kim HK, Kang TS. 1987. Effect of packaging method on the on the storage stability of boiled-dried anchovy. Korean J Food Sci Technol 19: 195-199.
  9. Jo KS, Kim YM. 1987. Effect of temperature relative humidity on the storage stability of boiled-dried anchovy. Korean J Food Sci Technol 19: 188-194.
  10. Kwon JH, Jung HW, Byun MW, Kim JS. 1995. Effects of storage temperature and packaging methods on the physicochemical quality of boiled-dried anchovies. J Food Hyg Safety 10: 97-102.
  11. Kwon JH, Byun MW, Warrier AS, Kamat MD, Alur MD, Nair PM. 1993. Quality changes in irradiated and nonirradiated boiled-dried anchovies after intercountry transportation and storage at $25^{\circ}C$. J Food Sci Technol 30: 256-260.
  12. Kwon JH, Byun MW. 1995. Gamma irradiation combined with improved packaging for preserving and improving the quality of dried fish (Engraulis encrasi-cholus). Radiat Phys Chem 46: 725-729.
  13. Chung HW, Delincee H, Kwon JH. 2002. The application of different detection methods for irradiated dried anchovy and shrimp. Radiat Phys Chem 63: 411-414.
  14. Noh JE, Byun MW, Kwon JH. 2002. Quality and thermoluminescence properties of γ-irradiated boiled-dried anchovies during storage. Korean J Food Preserv 9: 19-27.
  15. Kwon JH, Chung HW, Kwon YJ. 2000. Infrastructure of quarantine procedures for promoting the trade of irradiated foods. Paper presented at Symposium of The Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products on Irradiation Technology for the Safety of Food and Public Health Industries and Quality Assurance, Daejon, 13 October, p 209-254.
  16. Delincee H. 2002. Analytical methods to identify irradiated food-a review. Radiat Phys Chem 63: 455-458.
  17. IAEA. 2002. International atomic energy agency homepage.
  18. European Committee for standard. 1997. Detection of irradiated food which silicate minerals can be isolated, Method by thermoluminescence. English version of DIN EN 1788
  19. Chung HW. 2000. Characterization of irradiated foods by thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance measurements for their identification. PhD Dissertation. Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.
  20. Schreiber GA, Hoffmann A, Helle N, Bogl KW. 1995. An interlaboratory trial on the identification of irradiated spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures by thermoluminescence analysis. JAOAC International 78: 88-93.
  21. European Committee for standard. 1996. Detection of irradiated food containing bone-Method by ESR spectroscopy. English version of DIN EN 1786.
  22. Goodman BA, McPhail DB, Duthie, DML. 1989. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy of some irradiated food stuffs. J Sci Food Agric 47: 101-111.
  23. Metcalf LD, Schmitz AA, Pelka JR. 1996. Rapid preparation of fatty acid esters from lipid for gas chromatographic analysis. Anal Chem 38: 514-519.
  24. European Committee for Standard. 1996. Detection of irradiated food containing fat - Gas chromatographic analysis of hydrocarbons. English version of DIN EN 1784.
  25. Kim KS, Kim EA, Lee HJ, Yang JS, Byun MW. 1999. Quantitative comparison of radiation-induced hydrocarbons from irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Korean J Food Sci Technol 31: 301-307.
  26. Lee HJ, Kim KS. 2001. Analysis of radiolytically produced hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones from irradiated pinenut. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 30: 37-42.
  27. Kim KS, Kim EA, Lee HJ, Yang JS, Byun MW, Kim SM, Lee MY. 1999. Quantitative comparison of radiation-induced 2-alkylcyclobutanones from irradiated beef and chicken. Korean J Food Sci Technol 31: 1495-1502.
  28. SAS. 2001. SAS Users Guide. version 8.1. Statistical Analysis System Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
  29. Khan HM, Delincee H. 1995. Detection of irradiation treatment of dates using thermoluminescence of mineral contamination. Radiat Phys Chem 46: 717-720.
  30. Hwang KT, Park JY, Kim CK. 1997. Application of hydrocarbons as markers for detecting post-irradiation of imported meats and fish. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 26: 1109-1115.

Cited by

  1. Effects of ${\gamma}$-Ray Irradiation on the Color of Pearl Nucleus vol.27, pp.3, 2011,
  2. Studies on the Applications of PSL, TL and ESR Methods for The Detection of Irradiated Foods not Allowed to be Irradiated in Korea vol.27, pp.3, 2012,
  3. The Effect on Anti-oxidative Activity and Increasing Extraction Yield of Aralia elata Cortex by Gamma Irradiation vol.27, pp.5, 2014,
  4. Comparison of Radiation-Induced Hydrocarbons in Dried Anchovies by Electron-Beam Irradiation vol.43, pp.12, 2014,
  5. Inter-country transportation of irradiated dried Korean fish to prove its quality and identity vol.71, pp.1-2, 2004,