Characteristics of Cooked Rice by Adding Grains and Legumes

곡류와 두류를 혼합한 잡곡의 취반 특성

  • 임상빈 (제주대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 강명수 (제주대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 좌미경 (제주대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 송대진 (제주대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 오영주 (제주한라대학 호텔조리과)
  • Published : 2003.02.01


Nutritional compositions of the raw materials, such as well-milled rice, milled upland glutinous rice, milled barley, glutinous millet, SoRiTae, red beans and mung beans were analysed, and cooking characteristics and sensory attributes of mixed cereals were measured. Crude protein and crude fat in SoRiTae were 31.6% and 16.16%, respectively, and the highest among the raw materials. Crude ash was 3~11 times higher and crude fiber was 5~7 times higher in legumes than in grains. Iron content in SoRiTae was the highest as 7.8 mg/100 g, and calcium content was the highest as 71.0 mg/100 g in SoRiTae and mung beans. Phosphorus content was higher in glutinous millet and mung beans, and potassium content was greatly higher in legumes than in grains and the highest as 934 mg/100 g in red beans. Vitamin B$_1$ and B$_2$ contents were higher in legumes than in grains, and niacin content was the highest as 5.51 mg/100 g in mung beans and was 3.77 mg/100 g in glutinous millet. Water uptake of the raw materials increased greatly after 5 min of soaking in water and then stayed at the almost same level. Water uptake was the highest in SoRiTae and decreased in the order of milled barley, milled upland glutinous rice, glutinous millet and well-milled rice. Hardness was the lowest as 142.8 g/cm$^2$ in cooked SoRiTae, and the highest as 206.3 g/cm$^2$ in cooked milled barley compared with 169.4 g/cm$^2$ in cooked well-milled rice. Cooking time increased and hardness of cooked mixed cereals decreased with the increase of water added. Moisture content decreased, while crude protein, crude ash and crude fiber increased as the increase of mixing ratio of SoRiTae and red beans in mixed cereals. Lightness decreased, while red and blue color increased, and hardness increased with the increase of mixing ratio of SoRiTae and red beans. Sensory evaluation showed greater preference in terms of color, roasted nutty, sweet taste and overall acceptance in the cooked mixed cereals with 8 and 10% of SoRiTae and red beans.


  1. 통계청 농수산통계과. 2002. 2001. 양곡년도 가구부문 1인당 쌀 소비량.
  2. Kum JS, Lee CH, Baek KH, Lee HY. 1995. Influence of cultivar on rice starch and cooking properties. Korean J Food Sci Technol 27: 365-369.
  3. Kim WJ, Kim CK, Kim S. 1986. Evaluation and comparison of sensory quality of cooked rice. Korean J Food Sci Technol 18: 38-41.
  4. Kim CH, Hwang JS, Kim WJ. 1987. Study on rheological and sensory properties of cooked rices I. Changes in flavor and appearance of cooked rices during storage. J Korean Soc Agric Chem Biotechnol 30: 109-117.
  5. Hwang JS, Kim WJ, Byun MW, Chang HG, Kim WJ. 1987. Study on rheological and sensory properties of cooked rices II. Effects of storage on textural properties of cooked rices. J Korean Soc Agric Chem Biotechnol 30: 118-125.
  6. Kim HY, Kim KO. 1986. Sensory characteristics of rice cooked with pressure cookers and electric cookers. J Food Sci Technol 18: 319-324.
  7. Lee SO, Kim SK, Lee SK. 1983. Kinetic studies on hydration of traditional and high-yielding rice varieties. J Korean Soc Agric Chem Biotechnol 26: 1-7.
  8. AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Association of official analytical chemist, Washington DC.
  9. AACC. 1995. Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. 9th ed. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. Vol 1, 2.
  10. Sims A, Shoemaker D. 1993. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic determination of thiamin and riboflavin in selected foods. J AOAC Int'l 76: 1156-1160.
  11. Kim WJ, Chung NY, Kim SK, Lee AR, Lee SK, Ha YC, Baik MY. 1995. Sensory characteristics of cooked rices differing in moisture contents. Korean J Food Sci Technol 27: 885-890.
  12. Kim MH. 1992. Effects of soaking conditions on texture of cooked rice. Korean J Food Sci Technol 24: 511-514.
  13. Kim DW, Eun JB, Rhee CO. 1998. Cooking conditions and textural changes of cooked rice added with black rice. Korean J Food Sci Technol 30: 562-568.
  14. SAS Institute Inc. 1996. SAS User's Guide. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
  15. Hallberg L, Hulten L, Gramatkovski E. 1997. Iron absorption from the whole diet in men: How effective is the regulation of iron absorption. Amer J Clin Nutr 66: 347-356.
  16. 장유경, 정영진, 문현경, 윤진숙, 박혜련. 2001. 개정 영양판정. 신광출판사, 서울. p 39.
  17. 한국영양학회. 1998. 영양학의 최신정보 7차 개정판. 한국영양학회. p 167.
  18. Han SH, Choi EJ, Oh MS. 2000. A comparative study on cooking qualities of imported and domestic rices (Chuchungbyeo). Korean J Soc Food Sci 16: 91-97.
  19. 금준석, 이상효, 이현유, 김현정, 남영중, 김길환. 1993. 밥공장 자동화를 위한 연구. 한국식품개발연구원 연구보고서.
  20. 강미경. 2002. 쌀의 기능성 성분과 효능. 쌀의 기능성 재조명과 기능성 쌀 제품화 전략. 한국산업식품공학회. p 35-50.

Cited by

  1. The quality Characteristics of Saccharified Minor Cereal Gruel Prepared with Different Grain Kojis vol.27, pp.6, 2011,
  2. Physicochemical and Cooking Characteristics of Non-waxy Soft Brown Rice vol.32, pp.5, 2016,
  3. A Survey on the Preferences and Recognition of Multigrain Rice by Adding Grains and Legumes vol.41, pp.6, 2012,
  4. Association of food intake with serum levels of phosphorus and potassium in hemodialysis patients vol.47, pp.1, 2014,
  5. Antioxidant Activities of Mixed Grains vol.29, pp.5, 2016,
  6. Cooking Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Cooked Rice According to the Addition of Glutinous and Non-glutinous Sorghum vol.58, pp.4, 2013,
  7. Effects of Steeping and Infrared Heating on Hydration and Sensory Properties of Barley vol.18, pp.4, 2014,
  8. Quality Characteristics of Saccharified Rice Gruel Prepared with Different Cereal Koji vol.40, pp.11, 2011,
  9. Quality Characteristics of Cooked Rice with Mixed Cereals by Blending Ratio of the Cereals Frequently Consumed in Korea vol.23, pp.4, 2012,
  10. Establishment of Mixing Ratio of Multigrain Rice for Adolescent and Aged People and Its Nutritional and Functional Estimation vol.42, pp.1, 2013,
  11. Quality Characteristics and Manufacture of Extruded Noodles Mixed with Cereals vol.25, pp.3, 2012,
  12. Status of Mixed Grain Diet by People with Diabetes in Jeollabuk-do and Sensory Evaluation of Different Composition of Mixed Grains vol.39, pp.7, 2010,
  13. Evaluation of Rheological and Functional Properties of Roasted Soybean Flour and Mixed Cereals Fermented by Bacillus sp. vol.40, pp.3, 2011,
  14. Effects of Mandarin, Broccoli, Cabbage, and Carrot Concentrate on in Vitro Biological Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria-Fermented Cereal Mixtures of Rice Bran and Germinated Barley vol.33, pp.6, 2017,