Trans Fatty Acid Isomers of Processed Foods Commonly Consumed in Korea

한국인 상용 가공식품의 trans 지방산 이성체

  • 노경희 (인제대학교 의생명공학대학 식품생명과학부 및 바이오헬스소재센타) ;
  • 원미숙 (한국기초과학연구소 부산분소) ;
  • 송영선 (한국기초과학연구소 부산분소)
  • Published : 2003.04.01


This study was designed to determine the distribution of trans fatty acids (tFAs) isomers of Processed foods commonly consumed in Korea. The tFAs positional isomers were analyzed using GC/MS spectrometer with HP-23 cis/trans FAME, capillary column (50m $\times$ 0.20 mm, id., 0.2 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ film thickness) for 41 food samples. TFAs isomers were identified by comparing retention time with standards and GC/MS spectrum. In margarines, the content of tFAs ranged from 4.0% to 25.16% and the most abundant positional isomer of tFAs was C18:1 $\Delta$9t. In oils and fats, lards contained higher levels of tFAs (5.70~16.54%) than shortenings (6.77~10.55%). Shortenings contained higher levels of C18:1 $\Delta$9t (3.1~5.1%) than lard (1.6~4.3%), but corn oils had no tFAs. In seasonings, mayonnaise had no C16:1 $\Delta$9t, whereas C18:3t was detected. The content of tFAs in confectioneries was wide (16.20~52.16%). Among them, instant popcorns contained the highest amount of tFAs. Milk and dairy products showed even distribution of tFAS such as C18:1t, C18:2t, and C18:3t. Predominant tFAS isomer of condensed milk and ice cream was C16:1 $\Delta$9t. Frozen french fries and fried chicken contained higher levels of C18:1$\Delta$9t (9.4%), whereas grilled pork (jowl) had no C18:1 $\Delta$9t. The amount of tFAs per serving size was the highest in popcorn, followed by frozen pizza, frozen french fries, fried chicken, and bakeries.


  1. Ascherio A, Willet C. 1997. Health effects of trans fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 66(s): 1006s-1010s.
  2. Shapiro S. 1997. Do trans fatty acids increase the risk of coronary artery disease? A critique of the epidemiologic evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 66(s): 1011s-1017s.
  3. Bethesda MD. 1996. Position paper on trans fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 63: 663-670.
  4. Lichtenstein AH. 2000. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk. Curr Opin Lipidol 11: 37-42.
  5. Vijver LP, Kardinaal AF, Couet C, Aro A, Kafatos A, Seingrimsdottir L, Amorim CJ, Moreiras O, Becker W, Amelsvoort JM, VidalJessel S, Salminen I, Moschandreas J, Sigfusson N, Martins I, Carbajal A, Ytterfors A, Poppel G. 2000. Association between trans fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk factors in Europe : the TRANIR study. Eur J Clin Nutr 54: 126-135.
  6. Singha RB, Niaza MA, Ghosha S, Beegoma R, Rastogia V, Sharma JP, Dubeb GK. 1996. Association of trans fatty acids (vegetable ghee) and clarified butter (Indian ghee) intake with higher risk of coronary artery disease in rural and urban populations with low fat consumption. International Journal of Cardiology 56: 289-298.
  7. Calson SE, Clandinin MT, Cook HW, Emken EA, Filer LT. 1997. Trans fatty acids infant and fetal development. Am J Clin Nutr 66: 717s-736s.
  8. Houwelingen ACV, Hornstra G. 1994. Trans fatty acids in early human development, in fatty acids and lipid : Biological aspects. In World Review of Nutrition and Diet. Simopoulos C, Karger TE, eds. Kareer AG, Basel. p 175-178.
  9. Kolezko B. 1992. Trans fatty acids may impair biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated and growth in man. Acta Paediatr 81: 302-306.
  10. Innis SM, King DJ. 1999. Trans fatty acids in human milk are inversely associated with concentrations of essential allcis n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and determine trans, but not n-6 and n-3, fatty acids in plasma lipids of breast-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 70: 383-390.
  11. Slover HT, Thompson RH, David CS, Merola GV. 1985. Lipids in margarines and margarine-like foods. J Am Oil Chem Soc 62: 775-786.
  12. Greyt W, Radanyi O, Kellens M, Huyghebaert A. 1995. Contribution of trans fatty acids from vegetable oils and margarines to the Belgian diet. Eur J Med Res 17: 105-108.
  13. Ovesen S, Leth T, Hansen K. 1996. Fatty acid composition of Danish margarines and shortenings, with special emphasis on trans fatty acids. Lipids 31: 971-975.
  14. Henninger M, Ulberth F. 1996. Trans fatty acids in margarines and shortenings marketed in Austria. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 203: 210-215.
  15. Enig MG, Atal S, Keeney M, Sampugna J. 1990. Isomeric trans fatty acids in the US diet. J Am Coll Nutr 9: 471-486.
  16. Cuadrado C, Carbajal A, Nunez C, Ruiz-Roso B, Moreiras O. 1998. Spanish contribution to the creation of a European analytical database of trans fatty acids. Nutr Hosp 13: 21-27.
  17. Beare-Rogers JL, Gray LM, Hollywood R. 1979. The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines. Am J Clin Nutr 32: 1805-1809.
  18. FDA. 2002. Mandatory trans labeling may come in 2002. INFORM 11: 173.
  19. Senti FR. 1988. Health aspects. Bethesda, MD (Contract no. FDA (223-83-2020).
  20. Senti FR. 1985. Health aspects of dietary trans fatty acids. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Bethesda, MD (Contract no. FDA 223-83-2020).
  21. Marchand CM, Beare-Rogers JL. 1992. Complementary techniques for the identification of trans trans-18:2 isomers in margarines. Can Inst Food Sci Technol J 1124: 159-162.
  22. Ip C. 1997. Review of the effects of trans fatty acids, oleic acid, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and conjugated linoleic acid mammary carcinogenesis in animals. Am J Clin Nutr 66: 1523s-1529s.
  23. Adam M, Chew M, Wasserman S, McCollum A, McDonald RE, Mossoba MM. 1998. Determination of trans fatty acids in hydrogenated vegetable oils by attenuated total refraction infrared spectroscopy: two limited collaborative studies. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75: 353-358.
  24. Greyt WD, Kint A, Kellens M, Huyghebaert A. 1998. Determination of low trans levels in refined oils by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75: 115-118.
  25. McDonald RE, Armstrong DJ, Kreishman GP. 1989. Identification of trans diene isomers in hydrogenated soybean oil by gas chromatography, silver nitrate-thin layer chromatography, and $^{13}C-NMR$ spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 37: 637-642.
  26. Parceria J, Codont R, Boatella J, Rafecas M. 1999. Fatty acids including trans content of commercial bakery products manufactured in Spain, J Agric Food Chem 47: 2040-2043.
  27. Park CS, Yoon KR. 1998. Effect of deodorizing conditions on formation of trans-fatty acids of soybean oils. Korean J Food Sci Technol 30: 6-12.
  28. Kennerly DA. 1988. Two dimensional thin-layer chromatographic separation of phospholipid molecular species using plates with both reversed phase and argentation zones. J Chromatography 454: 425-431.
  29. Cho YJ, Sugano M. 1985. Content of trans fatty acids in Korean margarine. Korean J Food Sci Technol 17: 219-223.
  30. Ahn MY, Ahn MS. 1989. A study on trans fatty acids contents of vegetable oils added to can. Korean J Soc Food Sci 5: 69-74.
  31. Lee KB, Han MK, Lee MS. 1998. Effect of deodorizing temperature on physicochemical characteristics in corn oil. Korean J Food & Nutr 11: 26-30.
  32. Kim DS. 1991. A study on the formation of trans fatty acids with heating and storage of fats and oils. Master's thesis. Sungshin Women's University, Seoul.
  33. Rural Nutrition Living Science Institute, RDA. 1996. Food Composition Table.
  34. Yonsei University Food Science Institute. 1995. Fatty Acid Composition of Korean Foods. Shinkwang Pub. Co., Seoul.
  35. USDA. Trans fatty acids database.
  36. Noh KH, Lee KY, Moon JW, Lee MO, Song YS. 1999. Trans fatty acids content of processed foods in Korean diet. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 28: 1191-1200.
  37. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37: 911-917.
  38. Jo HG, Jo KY, Park CG, Cho GS, Chai SG, Ma SJ. 1994. Food analysis. Yurim Pub. Co., Seoul. p 225-227.
  39. Chin SF, Liu W, Storkson TM, Ha YL, Pariza HW. 1992. Dietary sources of conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid, a newly recognized class of anticarcinogens. J Food Composition and Analysis 5: 185-197.
  40. The Korean nutrition information center the Korean nutrition society. 1998. Food value of portion commonly used. The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul.
  41. Lake R, Thomson B, Devane G, Scholes P. 1996. Trans fatty acid content of selected New Zealand foods. J Food Composition and Analysis 9: 365-374.
  42. Pfalzgraf A, Timm M, Steinhart H. 1993. Amounts of trans fatty acids in foods. Z. Erahrungswiss 33: 24-43.
  43. Heckers H, Melcher FW. 1978. Trans-isomeric fatty acids present in West German margarines, shortenings, frying and cooking fats. Am J Clin Nutr 331: 1041-1049.
  44. List GR, Pelloso T, Orthoefeerr F, Chrysam M, Mounts TI. 1995. Preparation and properties of zero trans soybean oil margarines. J Am Oil Chem Soc 72: 383-384.
  45. Kim JH, Jang KW, Shin HS. 2000. Contents and estimated intakes of trans fatty acids in Korean diet. Korean J Food Sci Technol 32: 1002-1008.
  46. Aro A, Amelsvoort J, Becker E, Erp-Baart MA, Kafatos A, Leth T, Poppel G. 1998. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries: The TRANIR study. J Food Composition and Analysis 11: 137-149.
  47. Stanton C, Lawless F, Kjiellmen G, Harrington D, Devery R, Connolly F, Murphy J. 1997. Dietary influences on bovine milk cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid content. J Food Sci 62: 1083-1086.
  48. Erp-Baart MA, Couet C, Cuadrado C, Kafatos A, Stanley J, Poppel G. 1998. Trans fatty acids in bakery products from 14 European countries: The TRANIR study. J Food Composition and Analysis 11: 161-169.

Cited by

  1. The effect of gamma irradiation on oleic acid in methyl oleate and food vol.121, pp.1, 2010,
  2. Trans Fatty Acid Content in Commercial Processed Food in Jeon-Buk Area vol.42, pp.3, 2009,
  3. Characterization of Low-Trans Solid Fat from Canola and Fully Hydrogenated Soybean Oil by Lipase-Catalyzed Interesterification Reaction vol.39, pp.9, 2010,