In-Vivo Heat Transfer Measurement using Proton Resonance Frequency Method of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

자기 공명영상 시스템의 수소원자 공명 주파수법을 이용한 생체 내 열 전달 관찰

  • 조지연 (인제대학교 의용공학과) ;
  • 조종운 (인제대학교 의용공학과) ;
  • 이현용 (부산백병원 진단방사선과) ;
  • 신운재 (부산백병원 진단방사선과) ;
  • 은충기 (인제대학교 의과대학 진단방사선과) ;
  • 문치웅 (인제대학교 의용공학과)
  • Published : 2003.05.01


The purpose of this study is to observe the heat transfer process in in-vivo human muscle based on Proton Resonance Frequency(PRF) method in Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI). MRI was obtained to measure the temperature variation according to the heat transfer in phantom and in-vivo human calf muscle. A phantom(2% agarose gel) was used in this experiment. MR temperature measurement was compared with the direct temperature measurement using a T-type thermocouple. After heating agarose gel to more than 5$0^{\circ}C$ in boiling hot water, raw data were acquired every 3 minutes during one hour cooling period for a phantom case. For human study heat was forced to deliver into volunteer's calf muscle using hot pack. Reference data were once acquired before a hot pack emits heat and raw data were acquired every 2 minutes during 30minutes. Acquired raw data were reconstructed to phase-difference images with reference image to observe the temperature change. Phase-difference of the phantom was linearly proportional to the temperature change in the range of 34.2$^{\circ}C$ and 50.2$^{\circ}C$. Temperature resolution was 0.0457 radian /$^{\circ}C$(0.0038 ppm/$^{\circ}C$) in phantom case. In vivo-case, mean phase-difference in near region from the hot pack is smaller than that in far region. Different temperature distribution was observed in proportion to a distance from heat source.


  1. Y. Ishihara et al, 'A presice and fast temperature mapping using water proton chemical shift', Magn. reson. med., vol.34, no.6, pp. 814-823, 1915
  2. R.M. Botnar et al, 'Temperature quantification using the proton frequency shift technique: in vitro and in vivo validation in an open 0.5 tesla interventional MR scanner during RF ablation', J. magn. reson imaging, vol.13, no.3, pp. 437-444, 2001
  3. Q. Zhang et al, 'A method for simultaneous RF ablation and MRI', J. magn. reson. imaging, vol.8, no.1, pp. 110-114, 1998
  4. B. Quesson et al, 'Magnetic resonance temperature imaging for guidance of thermotherapy', J. magn. reson. imaging, vol.12, no.4, pp. 525-533, 2000<525::AID-JMRI3>3.0.CO;2-V
  5. J. De Poorter et al, 'The proton-resonance-frequency-shift method compared with molecular diffusion for quantitative measurement of two-dimensional time-dependent temperature distribution in a phantom', J. magn, reson. Series B, vol.103, no.3, pp. 234-241, 1994
  6. Y.C. Chung et al, 'Temperature measurement using Echo-Shifted FLASH at low field for interventional MRI,' J. magn. reson. imaging, vol.9, no.l, pp. 138-145, 1999<138::AID-JMRI18>3.0.CO;2-A
  7. Shankaranarayanan, A. et al, 'Developing a multichannel temperature probe for interventional MRI', J. magn. reson. imaging., vol.8, no.1, pp. 197-202, 1998
  8. R.Y. Mulkern et al, 'Tissue temperature monitoring with multiple Gradient-echo imaging sequence', J. magn. reson. imaging, vol.8, no.2, pp. 493-502, 1998
  9. A.H. Chung et al, 'Optimization of Spoiled Gradient-Echo phase imaging for in vivo localization of a focused ultrasound beam' Magn, reson. med., vol.36, no.5, pp. 745-752, 1995
  10. R.D. Peters et al, 'Heat-source orientation and geometry dependence in proton-resonance frequency shift magnetic resonance thermometry', Magn. reson. med, vol.41, no.5, pp. 909-918, 1999<909::AID-MRM9>3.0.CO;2-N
  11. J. De Poorter et al, 'Noninvasive MRI thermometry with the proton resonance frequency(PRF) method: in vivo results in human muscle', Magn, reson. med., vol,33, no.1, pp. 74-81, 1995
  12. J.A. De Zwart et al, 'On-line correction and visualization of motion during MRI -controlled hyperthermia', Magn, reson. med, vol.45, no.1, pp. 128-137, 2001<128::AID-MRM1017>3.0.CO;2-M
  13. J.A. De Zwart et ai, 'Fast lipid-suppressed MR temperature mapping with Echo-Shifted Gradient-Echo imaging and Spectral-Spatial Excitation', Magn, reson. med., vol.42, no.1, pp. 53-59, 1999<53::AID-MRM9>3.0.CO;2-S