Antimicrobial Activity of Gluten Hydrolysate with Asp. saitoi Protease

밀 단백 효소 가수분해물의 항균활성

  • Lee, Sang-Duk (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Joo, Jeong-Hyeon (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Lee, Gyu-Hee (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Lee, K.T. (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Oh, Man-Jin (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University)
  • Published : 2003.07.01


This study was carried out to investigate whether peptide produced from wheat protein by enzyme hydrolysis can be used as a natural antimicrobial agent. Antimicrobial peptide was obtained from wheat protein hydrolyzed by 7 of pretense. The produced antimicrobial peptide was purified through ultrafiltration, membrane filtration and HPLC and molecular weight and amino acid sequence of the purified antimicrobial peptide were determined. Among hydrolysate produced from wheat protein by 7 of protease, antimicrobial activity was observed for the peptide obtained from Asp. saito protease. The Asp. saito protease did produce antimicrobial hydrolysate showing the highest antimicrobial activity at reaction condition of 37$^{\circ}C$ and pH 6.0, but not at reaction condition above 5$0^{\circ}C$. Wheat protein hydrolysate was fractionated by membrane filtration and showed antimicrobial activity between molecular weight 1,000~3,000. The antimicrobial activity fraction obtained by membrane filtration was separated through HPLC and showed antimicrobial activity in the peak of retention time 31.1~31.8 min. We could convince this hydrolysate as heat-stable peptide since antimicrobial activity was maintained after treated with heat for 15 min at 121$^{\circ}C$. Molecular weight of antimicrobial peptide identified by MALDI-mass was 1,633. Amino acid sequence of antimicrobial peptide was cysteine, glycine, prolin, prolin, prolin, valine, valine, alanine, alanine and arginine.


  1. Naidu AS. 2000. Natural Food Antimicrobial Systems. CRC press, New York, Washington DC. p 1-11
  2. Boman HG. 1995. Antimicrobial activity of peptide. Annu Rev Immunal 13: 61-92
  3. Lehrer RI, Lichtenstein AK, Geanz T. 1993. Defensin: antimicrobial and cytoxic peptides of mammalian cells. Annu Rev Immunol 11: 105-128
  4. Gennaro R, Skerlavai B, Romeo D. 1989. Purification, composition and activity of two bactenecins, antibacterial pep tides of bovine neutrophils. Insect Immunol 57: 3142-3146
  5. Elsbach P, Weiss J. 1993. Bactericidal/permeability increasing protein and host defense against gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin. Curr Opin Immunol 5: 103-107
  6. Lee JY, Boman A, Chuanxin S, Andersonn M, Jornvall H,Mutt V, Boman H G. 1989. Antibacterial peptides from pigintestine: isolation of a mammalian cecropin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 9159-9162
  7. Bevins CL, Zasloff M. 1990. Peptide from frog skin. Annu Rev Biochem 59: 395-414
  8. Simmaco M, Mignogna G, Barra D, Bossa F. 1994. Antimicrobial peptides from skin secretions of Rana esculenta. J Biol Chem 269: 11956-11961
  9. Boman G. 1995. Peptide antibiotics and their role in innateimmunity. Annu Rev Immunol 13: 61-92
  10. Hoffmann JA, Hetru C. 1992. Insect defensins inducibleantibacterial peptides. Immunol Today 13: 411-415
  11. Casteels P, Ampre C, Jacobs F, Tempst P. 1993. Functional and chemical chacterization of Hymenoptaecin, an antibacterial polypeptide that is infection inducible honeybee. J Biol Chem 268: 7044-7054
  12. Hara S, Yamakawa M. 1995. Moricin, A novel type of antibacterial peptide isolated from Silkworm, Bombyx mori. J Biol Chem 270: 29923-29927
  13. Orivel J, Rederker V, Caer JL, Krier F. 2001. Ponericins, new antibacterial and insecticidal peptide from the venom of theant pachycondvla goeldii. J Biol Chem 276: 17823-17829
  14. Bilikova K, Wu GS, Simuth J. 2001. Isolation of a peptide fraction from honeybee royal jelly as a potential antifoulbrood factor, Apidologie 32: 275-283
  15. Naidu AS. 2000. Natural Food Antimicrobial Systems. CRC press, New York, Washington DC. p 31-44
  16. Wu M, Maier, E, Benz R, Hancock REW. 1999. Mechanismof interaction of different classes of cationic antimicrobialpeptides with planar bilayers and with the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. Biochem 38: 7235-7242
  17. Wu M, Hancocks REW. 1999. Interaction of the cyclic antimicrobial cationic peptide bactenicin with the outer and cytoplamic membrane. J Biol Chem 274: 29-34
  18. Fennema OR. 1996. Food chemistry. Marcel Deker Inc., NewYork. p 423
  19. Chiba H, Yoshikawa M. 1986. Biologically functional peptides from food protein; New opioid peptides from milkprotein. Marcel Deker Inc., New York. p 123-153
  20. Dionysius DA, Milne JM. 1997. Antibacterial peptides of bovine lactoferrin: Purification and characterization. J DairySci 80: 667-674
  21. Tomita M, Bellamy W, Takase M, Yamauchi K, WakabashiH, Kawase K. 1991. Potent antibacterial peptides generatedby pepsin digestion of bovine lactoferrin. J Dairy Sci 74:4137-4141
  22. Pellegrini A, Thomas U, Bramaz N, Hunziker P, Fellenberg RV. 1999. Isolation and identification of three bacterial domains in the bovine $\alpha$-lactoalbumin molecule. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 1426: 439-448
  23. Isidra R, Servaas V. 1999. Identification of two distinct antibacterial domains with in the sequence of bovine $\alpha$ $S_2$ casein, Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 1428: 314-326
  24. Pellegrini A, Dettling C, Thomas U, Hunziker P. 2001. Isolation and characterization of four bactericidal domains inthe bovine $\beta$-lactoglobulin. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 1526: 131-140
  25. Kim SY, Park PSW, Rhee KC. 1990. Functional properties of proteolytic enzyme modified soy protein isolate. J Agric Food Chem 36: 651-656
  26. Manachini PL, Fortina MG, Parini C. 1988. Enzymatic modification of vegetable protein by a crude preparation froma strain of Bacillus licheniformis. J Sci Food Agric 45: 263-266
  27. Chobert JM, Bertrand-Harb C, Nicolas MG. 1988. Solubilityand emulsifying properties of casein and whey Proteinsmodified enzymatically by trypsin. J Agric Food Chem 36:883-892
  28. Puski G. 1975. Modification of functional properties of soyproteins by proteolytic enzyme treatment. Cereal Chem 52:655-664
  29. Yamashita M, Arai S, Matsuyama J, Gonda M, Kato H, Fujimaki M. 1970. Phenomenal survey alpha-chymotrypsinplastein synthesis. Agric Biol Chem 34: 1484-1488
  30. AOAC. 2000. Official Metho of Analysis. 17th ed. Association of official analytical chemists, Washington DC.
  31. Norrell SA, Messley KE. 1997. Microbiology laboratory manual: principles and applications. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey. p 191-196
  32. Hsieh DST, Lin C, Lang ER, Catsimpoolas Rha N. 1979. Molecular-weight distribution of soybean globulin peptidesproduced by peptic hydrolysis. Cereal Chem 56: 227-231
  33. Deeslie WD, Cheryan M. 1991. Fractionation of soy protein hydrolysates using ultrafiltration membrane. J Food Sci 57: 411-413

Cited by

  1. Evaluation of biological activities of the short-term fermented soybean extract vol.22, pp.4, 2013,
  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Soy Protein Hydrolysate with Asp. saitoi Pretense vol.33, pp.2, 2004,