Isolation of Immunomodulatory Antitumor Active Polysaccharide (RGAP) from Red Ginseng By-Product and Its Physico-chemical Properties

홍삼추출잔사로부터 항암면역조절 활성을 보여주는 홍삼산성다당체(RGAP)의 분리 및 이화학적 특성

  • Published : 2003.07.01


This study was carried out in order to develop the method for isolation of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) haying immunomodulating antitumor activity from red ginseng by-product. The red ginseng by-product was obtained from red ginseng residues produced in processing of red ginseng ethanol extract. The yield of RGAP isolated by ultrafiltration was 20.9%. The active substance (GFP) was purified by DEAE-sepharose column chromatography RGAP induced nitric oxide (NO) exhibited tumoricidal activities against P8l5 (mastocytoma) tumor cells. Acid-hydrolyzed RGAP fragments were shown four to five spots. These sopts showed the same R$_{f}$ values with sugars designated as rhamnose, glucose, glactose and glucuronic acid. Some physico-chemical properties of RGAP were investigated. pH and dry reduction content at 105$^{\circ}C$ were 4.74 and 4.72%, respectively. Crude protein, ash and Pb contents were 3.30%, 4.74% and 2.30 ppm. These results suggest that we will be able to produce RGAP from red ginseng by-product by ultrafiltration in a large scale.e.


  1. Bae JH. 1997. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on the IL-1. TNF AND IL-12 gene expression of macrophages. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 26: 978-982
  2. Yamada H, Kiyohara H, Cyong JC, Otsuka Y. 1987. Structural characterization of an anti-complementary arabinogalactan from the roots of Anglica acutiloba. Carbohydr Res 159: 275-291
  3. Yamada H, Cyong JC, Otsuka Y. 1986. Purification and characterization of complement activating acidic polysaccharides from the roots of Lithospermum euchromum royale. International J Immunopharmacology 8: 71-82
  4. Yamada H, Ohtani K, Kiyohara H, Cyong JC, Otsuka Y, Ueno Y, Omura S. 1985. Purification and chemical properties of anti-complementary polysaccharide from the leaves of Ar-temisia princeps. Planta Med 51: 121-125
  5. Yamada H, Yanahira S, Kiyohara H, Cyong JC, Otsuka Y.1986. Water-soluble glucans from the seed of Coix Iacry-majobi Var Ma-Yuen. Phytochemistry 25: 129-132
  6. Gao QP, Kiyohara H, Cyong JC, Yamada H. 1988. Char-acterization of anti-complementary acidic heteroglycans fromthe leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Carbohydr Res 181: 175-187
  7. Tomoda M, Takahashi M, Nakatsuka S. 1973. Water-sol-uble carbohydrates of Zizyphi Fructus. Ⅱ. Isolation of twopolysacharides and structure of an arabinan. Chem Pharm Bull 21: 707-713
  8. Tomoda M, Shimizu N, Shimada K, Gonda R, Sakabe H.1984. Plant mucilages. ⅩⅩⅩⅨ. The location of O-acetylgroups and the structural features of Planatago-Mucilage A, the mucous polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago major Var. asiatica. Chem Pharm Bull 32: 2182-2188
  9. Kim YS, Park KM, Shin HJ, Song KS, Nam KY, Park JD. 2002. Anticancer activities of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide by activation of macrophages and natural killer cells.Yakhak Hoeji 46: 113-119
  10. Kim YS, Kang KS, Kim SI. 1990. Study on antitumor and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide fractions from Panax ginseng: comparison of effects of neutral and acidic polysaccharide fraction. Arch Pharm Res 13: 330-337
  11. Kim YS, Kang KS, Kim SI. 1991. Effects of ginseng Components on immunotoxicity of cyclophosphamide. Korean J Ginseng Sci 15: 13-20
  12. Lee YS, Chung IS, Lee IR, Kim KH, Hong WS, Yun YS. 1997. Activation of multiple effector pathways of immunesystem by the antineoplastic immunostimulator acidic polysaccharide ginsan isolated from Panax ginseng. Anticancer Res 17: 323-329
  13. Park KM, Jeong TC, Kim YS, Shin HJ, Nam KY, Park JD. 2000. Immunomodulatory effect of acidic polysaccharide fraction from Korean red ginseng (Panax ginsneg). Natural Product Sciences 6: 31-37
  14. Srivastava R, Kulshreshtha DK. 1989. Bioactive polysac charides from plants. Phytochem 28: 2877-2883
  15. Konno C, Sugiyama K, Kano M, Takahashi M, Hikino H. 1984. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of panaxans A,B,C,D and E, gylcans of Panax ginseng roots. Planta Medica 50: 443-448
  16. Hikino H, Oshima Y, Suzuki Y, Konno C. 1985. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of panaxans F,G,H,I,J,K and L, glycans Panax ginseng roots. Shoyakigaku Zasshi 39: 331-337
  17. Konno C, Hikino H. 1987. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of panaxans M,N,O and P, gylcans of Panax ginseng rootts. Int J Crude Drug Res 25: 53-58
  18. Konno C, Murakami M, Oshima Y, Hikino H. 1985. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of panaxans Q,R,S,T and U, glycans of Panax ginseng roots. J Ethnophamacol 14: 69-74
  19. Sonoda Y, Kasahara T, Mukaida N, Shimizu N, Tomoda M, Takeda T. 1998. Stimulation of interlukin-8 production by acidic polysaccharides from the rook of Panax ginseng. Immmunopharmacol 38: 287-293
  20. Kim KH, Lee YS, Jung IS, Park SY, Chung HY, Lee IR, Yun YS. 1998. Acidic polysaccharide from Panax ginseng, ginsan, induces Th1 cell and macrophage cytokines and generates LAK cells in synergy with rⅡ-2. Planta Medica 64: 110-115
  21. Park KM, Kim YS, Jeong TC, Joe CO, Shin HJ, Lee YH, Nam KY, Park JD. 2001. Nitric oxide is involved in the immunomodulating activitied of acidic polysaccharide from Panax ginseng. Planta Medica 67: 122-126
  22. Park JD. 1996. Recent studies on the chemical constituents of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Korean J Ginseng Sci 20: 389-396
  23. Klimetzek V, Remold HG. 1980. The murine bone marrow macrophage, a sensitive indicator cell for murine migration inhibitory factor and a new method for their harvest. CeII Immunol 53: 257-266
  24. 식품의약품안전청. 1999. 의약품 등 기준 및 시험방법 제2재정. (주) 약업 신문출판국, 한국. p 1283-1284
  25. AOAC. 1984, Official methods of analysis. 14th ed. The association of official analytical chemists, Washington DC.
  26. Kwak YS, Kim EM. 1996. The physical properties of crude polysaccharide fraction isolated from Korean ginseng (Panaxginseng C.A. Meyer). Korean J Food Technol 28: 389-392
  27. Chaplin MJ, Kennedy JF. 1994. Carbohydrate analysis. IRL Press, Oxford. p 2-7

Cited by

  1. A Study on the Saponin Contents and Antioxidant Activity of the Ginseng and Extruded Ginseng by Using Different Solvents for Extraction vol.24, pp.4, 2011,