• Published : 2003.12.31




  1. Grindley, T. and Steinfeld, G., Development and Testing of Regenerable Hot Coal-Gas Desulfurization Sorbent, Report, DOE/METC/16545-1125, DOE/METC, Morgantown, WV, USA, (1981)
  2. Sa, L. N., Foght, G. D., Ranade, P. V., and Harrison, D. P., 'High-temperature desulfurization using zinc ferrite solid structural changes,' Chem. Eng. Sci., 44(20), 215-224 (1989)
  3. Ayala, R. E. and Marsh, D. W., 'Characterization and Long-Range Reactivity of Zinc Ferrite in High-Temperature Desulfurization Processes,' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 30, 55-60 (1991)
  4. Gupta, R., Gangwal, S. K. and Jain, S. C., 'Development of Zinc Ferrite Sorbents for Desulfurization of Hot Coal Gas in a FluidBed Reactor,' Energy Fuels, 6(1), 21-27 (1992)
  5. Gangwal, S. K., 'Sulfur Removal from Gas Streams at High Temperature,' in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium and Exhibition: High Temperature Gas Cleaning, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, pp. 489 (1996)
  6. Westmoreland, P. R., Gibson, J. B. and Harrison, D. P., 'Comparative Kinetics of High-temperature reaction between $H_2S$ and selected Metal Oxides,' Environ. Sci. Technol., 11(5), 488-491 (1977)
  7. Ben-Slimane, R. and Hepworth, M. T., 'Desulfurization of Hot Coal-Derived Fuel Gases with Manganese-Based Regenerable Sorbents. l. Loading Tests,' Energy Fuels, 8(6), 1175-1183 (1994)
  8. Westmoreland, P. R. and Harrison, D. P., 'Evaluation of Candidate solids for HighTemperature Desulfurization of Low-Btu Gases,' Environ. Sci. Technol., 10(6), 659-661 (1976)
  9. Hepworth, M. T., Ben-Slimane, R. and Zhong, S., 'Thermodynamic Comparison of Several Sorbent System for Hot CoalDerived Fuel-Gas Desulfurization,' Energy Fuels, 7(6), 602-607 (1993)
  10. Gupta, R. P. and O'Brien, W. S., 'Desulfurization of Hot Syngas Containing Hydrogen Chloride Vapors Using Zinc Titanate Sorbents,' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 39(3), 610-619(2000)
  11. Gal, E., Najewicz, A., Furman, A. H., Ayala, R. and Feitelberg, A., 'Integrated Operation of a Pressurized Gasifier, Hot Gas Desulfurization System and Turbine Simulator,' in Proceedings of the Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting, Report No. DOE/METC-94/1008, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, WV, USA, (1994)
  12. Baker, W. T. and Perkins, R. A., 'The Effect of Coal Bound Chlorine on Corrosion of Coal Gasification Plant,' in Proceedings of International Conference on Chlorine in Coal, J. Stringer and D.D.Banerjee, Eds., Elsevier, pp. 92 (1991)
  13. Gangwal, S. K., Harkins, S. M., Stognet, J. M, Woods, M. C. and Rogers, T. N., 'BenchScale Testing Of Novel High-Temperature Desulfurization Sorbents,' Report No. DOE/MC/23126-2662 (DE89000935), Morgantown Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV, USA, (1988)
  14. Jain, S. C., Grindley, T. and Goldsmith, H., 'Effects of Chlorine on Hot-Gas Desulfurization Sorbents,' in Proceedings of International Conference In Coal, Stringer, J., Nanerjee, D.D., Eds, Elservier Science, New York, USA, pp. 85 (1991)
  15. Determination of Attrition and Abrasion of Powdered Catalysts by Air Jets. In Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Petroleum Products and Lubricants (Ill); ASTM: Philadelphia, USA, (1985)
  16. James P. L. Jr., Methods of Air Sampling and Analysis, 3rd ed., LEWIS PUBLISHERS Inc, MI, USA, pp. 312-315 (1988)
  17. Lee, Y. S., Kim, H, T. and Yoo, K. O., 'Effect of Ferric Oxide on the High- Temperature Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide over ZnO-$Fe_2O_3$ Mixed Metal Oxide Sorbent,' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 34(4), 1181-1188(1995)
  18. Ben-Slimane, R. and Hepworth, M. T., 'Desulfurization of Hot Coal-Derived Fuel Gases with Manganese-Based Regenerable Sorbmts. 3. Fixed-Bed Testing,' Energy Fuels, 9(2), 372-378 (1995)
  19. Szekely, J., Evans, J. W. and Sohn, H. T., Gas-Solid Reactions, Academic Press, New York, USA, pp. 86 (1976)
  20. Lew, P., Jothimurugesan, K. and FlytzaniStephanopouios, M., 'High Temperature H2S Removal from Fuel Gases by Regenerable Zinc Oxide Titanium Dioxide Sorbents,' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 28(5), 535-541 (1989)
  21. Waker, J. P., Gerritsen, A. W. and Moulijn, J. A., 'High Temperature H2S and COS Removal with MnO and FeO on $\gamma(-Al_2O_3$ Acceptors,' Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 32(1), 139-149 (1993)
  22. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 67th ed., CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA, (1986-1987)
  23. Abbasian, J., Wangerow, J. R. and Hill, A. H., 'Effect of HCI on Sulfidation of Calcium Oxide,' Chem. Eng. Sci., 48(15), 2689-2695 (1993)
  24. Houte, G.V., Rodrique, L., Gernet, M. and Delmon, P., 'Kinetics of the Reaction of Calcium Sulfite and Calcium Carbonate with Sulfur Dioxide and Oxygen in the presence of Calcium Chloride,' Environ. Sci. Technol., 15(3), 327-332 (1981)