Feedback Control of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Prostaglandin E2 in Rheumatoid Synoviocytes

  • Min, So-Youn (Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, The Center for Rheumatic Diseases in Kang-Nam St. Mary's Hospital) ;
  • Jung, Young Ok (Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, The Center for Rheumatic Diseases in Kang-Nam St. Mary's Hospital) ;
  • Do, Ju-Ho (Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, The Center for Rheumatic Diseases in Kang-Nam St. Mary's Hospital) ;
  • Kim, So-Yang (Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, The Center for Rheumatic Diseases in Kang-Nam St. Mary's Hospital) ;
  • Kim, Jeong-Pyo (Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, The Center for Rheumatic Diseases in Kang-Nam St. Mary's Hospital) ;
  • Cho, Chul-Soo (Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, The Center for Rheumatic Diseases in Kang-Nam St. Mary's Hospital) ;
  • Kim, Wan-Uk (St. Vincent Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea)
  • Published : 2003.09.30

Abstract

Objective: The role of prostaglandin $E_2$ (PGE2) in the etiopathogenesis of immune and inflammatory diseases has become the subject of recent debate. To determine the role of PGE2 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we tested the effect of exogenous PGE2 on the production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by rheumatoid synoviocytes. Methods: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were prepared from the synovial tissues of RA patients, and cultured in the presence of PGE2. The COX-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The PGE2 receptor subtypes in the FLS were analyzed by RT-PCR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to measure the NF-${\kappa}B$ binding activity for COX-2 transcription. The in vivoeffect of PGE2 on the development of arthritis was also tested in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) animals. Results: PGE2 ($10^{-11}$ to $10^{-5}M$) dose-dependently inhibited the expression of COX-2 mRNA and the COX-2 protein stimulated with IL-$1{\beta}$, but not COX-1 mRNA. NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, displayed an additive effect on PGE2-induced COX-2 downregulation. The FLS predominantly expressed the PGE2 receptor (EP) 2 and EP4, which mediated the COX-2 suppression by PGE2. Treatment with anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibodies partially reversed the PGE2-induced suppression of COX-2 mRNA, suggesting that IL-10 may be involved in modulating COX-2 by PGE2. Experiments using an inducer and an inhibitor of cyclic AMP (cAMP) suggest that cAMP is the major intracellular signal that mediates the regulatory effect of PGE2 on COX-2 expression. EMSA revealed that PGE2 inhibited the binding of NF-${\kappa}B$ in the COX-2 promoter via a cAMP dependent pathway. In addition, a subcutaneous injection of PGE2 twice daily for 2 weeks significantly reduced the incidence and severity of CIA as well as the production of IgG antibodies to type II collagen. Conclusion: Our data suggest that overproduced PGE2 in the RA joints may function as an autocrine regulator of its own synthesis by inhibiting COX-2 production and may, in part, play an anti-inflammatory role in the arthritic joints.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Ministry of Health and Welfare