Chemical Immobilization of Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) Using Medetomidine and Ketamine

Medetomidine과 Ketamine을 사용한 그물무늬 기린마취에 대한 고찰

  • Accepted : 2003.07.23
  • Published : 2003.09.25


The chemical immobilization in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) remains a challenge because of their size, behavior, and anatomic and physiologic characteristics that commonly create life threatening problems during immobilization. The drug combination medetomidine (MED) and ketamine (KET) was administered by remote injection. The dosages of MED and KET were correlated to the giraffe's shoulder height (SH), become recumbent with a dosage of $114{\mu}g$ of MED and 2.1 mg of KET, $320{\mu}g$ of atipamezole per cm of SH, respectively. After injection of the drugs, initial signs of sedation including ataxia were noticed at 3 minutes followed by lateral recombency at 12 minutes. The mean heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature recorded during the procedures were 55 beats per minute, 48 breaths per minute and $36.6^{\circ}C$, respectively. Atipamezole was administered, after 33 minutes result in death. Assuming that 24 hours fasting times were short and light esteemed of atipamzole adverse effects like vomiting, passive regurgitation.


  1. Aantaa, R. Alpha Z-adrenoceptor antagonists, Balliere'sClinical Anesthasiology. 2000, 14(2), 285-292
  2. Boever, W. J. Artiodactylids, In Zoo and Wild AnirnalMidicine. Fowler, M. E. (ed), pp. 769-830. W. B.SaundeK, Philadelphia, 1976
  3. Bush, M, Ensley, P. K. and Mehreu, K. Immobilizationof giraffes with xylazine and etorphine hydrochloride,J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1976, 169, 884-885
  4. Bush, M. Anesth&sia of high-risk animals: Giraffe, InZoo and W\\d Animal Medicine. Current therapy 3, 3rded. Fowler, M. E (ed), pp. 545-547. W. B. Saunders,Philadelphia, 1993
  5. Bush, M., Grobler, D. G. and Raath, J. P. Use of rnedetomidine and ketamine for immobilization of free-ranging giraffes, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2000, 218, 245-249
  6. Fowler, M. E. and Boever, W. J. Giraffidae (Giraffe and Okapi), In Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. 2nd ed. Fowler, M. E. (ed), pp. 986-988. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1986
  7. HalL L. W., Clarke, K. W. and Trim, C. M Anesthesia of birds, laboratory animals and wild animals, Veterinary Anaesthesia, pp. 463-479. lOth ed. W. B. Saunders, England, 2001
  8. Jalanka, H. H. and Roeken, B. 0. The use of medetomidine, medetomidine-ketamine combinations, and atipamezole in nondomestic mammals: A review. J. Zoo Wild Med. 1990, 21, 259-282
  9. Linton, R. A. F., Taylor, P. M. and Linton, N. W.F. Cardiac output measurement in an anaesthetizedgiraffe. Vet. Rec. 1999, 145, 498-499
  10. Pawde, A. M. Amarpal, Singh GR. Clinicophysio-logical effects of rnedetomidine in female goats, Small.Rum. Res., 1996, 20, 95-98
  11. Plumb, D. C. Veterinary drug handbook, PP.76-77,505-507. 4th ed, Iowa state Lhivasity Ress, Am2S.. Iowa.:2002
  12. Sarma, B., Pathak, S. C. and Sanna, K. K.Medetomidine-a novel immobilization agent for theelephant (Elephas nwximus), Res. Vet. Sci. 2002, 73,315-317
  13. Vogelnest, L, and Ralph, H. K. Chemical irnmabilizadotiof giraffe to facilitate short procedures, Aust. Vet. J.1997, 75(3), 180-182