Anaphylactoid Reaction Induced by Administration Dirofilaria immitis Extracts

개 심장사상충 추출액 투여에 의한 Anaphylactoid Reaction

  • Lee, Jee-young (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Song, Kun-ho (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kwon, Hyun-ju (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kim, Myung-cheol (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Yun, Hyo-in (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kim, Duek-hwan (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University)
  • 이지영 (충남대학교 수의과대학) ;
  • 송근호 (충남대학교 수의과대학) ;
  • 권현주 (충남대학교 수의과대학) ;
  • 김명철 (충남대학교 수의과대학) ;
  • 윤효인 (충남대학교 수의과대학) ;
  • 김덕환 (충남대학교 수의과대학)
  • Accepted : 2003.08.06
  • Published : 2003.09.25

Abstract

This study was performed to clarify the induction possibility of anaphylactoid reactions by the administration with the heartworm extracts, and, if any, to elucidate different virulences in terms of the protein concentrdtions and sexes of Dirofilaria immitis. Twenty three clinically healthy D. immitis-free adult dogs were used in the present study. The experimental animals were divided into 5 groups. Group A (5 heads) was administered with an female heartworm extract containing 0.1 g/dl protein concentration. Group B (4 heads) was administered with an male heartworm extract containing 0.1g/dl protein concentration. Group C (5 heads) was administered with an female heartworm extract containing 0.2 g/dl protein concentration. Group D (4 heads) was administered with an male heartworm extract containing 0.2 g/dl protein concentration. Group E (5 heads) was administered with an female heartworm extract containing 0.4 g/dl protein concentration. The changes of clinical symptoms and vital signs (body temperature, heart rate and respiration rate) were examined before and 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours and 24 hours after injection with the extracts, respectively. In addition, the changes of hematological values (RBC, PCV and total leukocytes counts), serum chemical values (ALP and CK) were determined. It was considered that heartworm extract could induce anaphylactoid reaction and adult female heartworm extract was more affective than those of adult male heartworm extract in the changes of clinical symptoms, vital signs, hematological values and serum chemical values.

References

  1. Aiello, S. E. The Merck Veterinary Manual, pp. 571-588.8th ed. Merck & Co., Philadelphia, 1998
  2. Atwell, R. B. and Boreham, P. F. L. Adverse drugreaction in the treatment of filarial parasites: clinical reactions to diethylcarbamazine therapy in dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis in Australia. J. Small. Anim. Pract. 1983, 24, 695-701
  3. Boreham, P. F. L. and Atwell, R. B. Adverse drug reaction in the treatment of filarial parasites: haerna-tological, biochemical, itnrrunological and pharmacological changes in Dirofilaria immitis infected dogs treated with diethylcarbamazine. Int. J. Parasitol. 1983, 13(6), 547-556
  4. Campbell, W. C. Efficacy of the avermectins against filarial parasites: a short review. Vet. Res. Commun. 1982, 5, 251-262
  5. Ciferri, F. Human pulmonary dirofilariasis in the United States: a critical review. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1982, 31, 302-308
  6. Elliot, F. E. Immunologic mechanisms in allergic disease. Pediatric Clinics of North America 1972, 19(2), 373-386
  7. Ettinger, S. J. and Feldman, E. C. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. pp. 937-963. 5th ed.W.B Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 2000
  8. Eyster, G. E., Garber, C. E. and Probst, M. Cardiac disorders, In: Textbook of Small Animal Surgery. pp. 856-889. 2nd ed. W.B Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1993
  9. Halonen, M. and Pinckard, R. N. Intravascular effects of IgE antibody upon basophils, neutrophils, Platelet and blood coagulation in the rabbit. J. Immunol. 1975, 115, 519-524
  10. Hainilton, R. G., Wagner, E., April, M, Winkelstein, J. A., Sobotka, A. K., Bleeker, E. and Adkinson, N. F. Jr. Dirofilara immitis: diethylcarbamazine-induced anaphylactoid reactions in infected dogs. Exp. Parasitol. 1986, 61, 405-420
  11. Jackson, R. F. and Seymour, W. G. Efficacy of aveimectins against microfilariae of Dirofilaria iminitis. In: Morgan, H. C., Otto, G. F., Jackson, R. F. In Pro- ceedings of the Heartwoirn Symposium '80. Edward-sville, pp. 131-136. Veterinary Medicine Publishing Co., Kan, 1981
  12. Kihara, S., Kihara, T. and Kajiwara, T. Influence of intrauterine Dirofilana eggs injected intravenously into dogs. J. Jpn. Vet. Med. Assoc. 1981, 34, 471-477
  13. Kim, M. C., Kini, J. M. and Kim, D. H. Two cases of dirofilariasis in dogs. Korean. J. Vet. Clin. Med. 1999, 16(1), 235-238
  14. Kim, S. K. Radiographyc evaluation of canine heartworm disease. Korean. J. Vet. Clin. Med. 1995, 12(2), 265-275
  15. Kitagawa, H., Sasaki. Y. and l.shihara, K. Heartworm migration toward right atrium following artificial pulmonary arterial embolism or injection of heartworm body fluid. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 1990, 52, 591-599
  16. Kitagawa, H., Sasaki, Y., Kumasaka, J., Mikami, C., Kitoh, K. and Kusano, K. Clinical and laboratory changes after administration of milbemycin oxirne inheartworm-free and heartworm-infected dogs. Am. J.Vet. Res. 1993, 54(4), 520-526
  17. Kitoh, K., Katoh, H., Kitagawa, H., Nagase, M.,Sasaki, N. and Sasaki, Y. Role of histarnine inheartworm extract-induced shock in dogs. Am. J. Vet.Res. 2001, 62, 770-774
  18. Kitoh, K., Kitagawa, H. and Sasaki, Y. Pathologicfindings in dogs with shock induced by intravenousadministration of heartworm extract. Am. J. Vet. Res.1998, 59(11), 1417-1422
  19. Kitoh, K., Mikami, C., Kitagawa, H. and Sasaki, Y. Hemodynamic alterations in dogs with shock induced by intravenous injection of heartwonn extract. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 2001, 63(2), 179-182
  20. Kitoh, K., Watoh, K., Chaya, K., Kitagawa, H. and Sasaki, Y. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical findings in dogs after induction of shock by injection of heartworm extract. Arn. J. Vet. Res. 1994, 55(11), 1535-1541
  21. Kume, S. Canine heartworm disease; The Current Knowledge, Bradley, R. E., pp. 39-44. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 1970
  22. Lee, S. E. The survey of canine dirofilariasis and differential diagnosis of microfilaria. A Thesis for Degree of Master of Vet. Med., pp. 7-13. Chungnam National University, 2002
  23. Nelson, R. W. and Couto, C. G. Small Animal Internal Medicine. pp. 162-179, 2nd ed. Mosby, St Louis, 1998
  24. Park, I. C. Echocardiographical findings of heartworm disease with paradoxic septum motion and caval syn-drome in a pug dog. J. Vet. Clin. 2001, 18(3), 297-303
  25. Rice, V. Shock. A clinical syndrome. Part 1: definition, etiology, and pathophysiology. Crit. Care Nurse. 1981, 1(3), 44-50
  26. Ring, J. and Behrendt, H. Anaphylaxis and anaphy-lactoid reactions. Clin. Rev. Allerg. Immu. 1999, 17,387-399
  27. Roncalli, R. A., Yamane, Y. and Nagata, T. Pre-valence of Dirqfilaria immitis in cats in Japan. Vet.Parasitol. 1998, 75, 81-89
  28. Sasaki. Y., Kitagawa, H., Ishihara, K. and Mori, M.Clinical application of milbemycin D as a prophylacticagent against DirofiIaria immitis infection in dogs:pathological findings following administration. Jpn. J.Vet. Sci. 1988, 50(5), 977-984
  29. Sasaki, Y., Kitagawa, H., Okachi, H., Kajita, Y.and Ishihara, K. Clinical application of milbeniycin Das a prophylactic agent against Dirofitaria immitisinfection in dogs: reactions in uninfected and infecteddogs. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 1986, 48(3), 579-586
  30. Seo, Y. W., Shin, S. S. and Kim, J. T. Occurrence ofcanine heartworm disease on three breeding farms inthe vicinity of Seoul, Korea. Korean J. Vet. Res. 2001,41, 79-83
  31. Shah, M. K. Human pulmonary dirofilariasis: reviewof the literature. South Med. J. 1999, 92(3), 276-279
  32. Song, K. H. The prevalence of canine heartwormdisease in the Daejeon area. A Thesis for Degree ofDoctor of Philosophy in Vet. Ntd., PP. 19-37. ChungnamNational University, 2001
  33. Song, K. H. The prevalence of canine heartwormdisease in the Daejeon area. A Thesis for Degree ofDoctor of Philosophy in Vet. Ntd., PP. 19-37. ChungnamNational University, 2001