Factors Affecting Smoking Attitude and Intention among Preschool Children

유치원 아동의 흡연태도 및 흡연의도에 미치는 영향요인

  • Lee Hung Sa (Daebul University, College of Public Health & Welfare, Department of Nursing) ;
  • Paik Sun-bok (Daebul University, College of Public Health & Welfare, Department of Social Welfare) ;
  • Kim Hyun Chull (Daebul University, College of Engineering, Department of Computer engineering) ;
  • Choi Gyoung Hee (Gang Jin Public Health Center)
  • Published : 2004.09.01

Abstract

Parental smoking status and smoking environment do not only affect children's health through exposure to nicotine, but are also related to children's smoking attitude, intention and knowledge of smoking. Since this study was conducted to examine a relationship between family members smoking and smoking attitude, intention and knowledge of their children, little is known about psychosocial factors influencing smoking among Korean preschool children. This study aimed to determine the psychosocial factors (sociodemographic factors, education for smoking cigarette, knowledge about smoke cigarette) influencing smoking attitude and smoking intention, with a purpose of providing directions for future education programs for Korean preschool children. A cross sectional sample of 840 children, ages 4-7 years, living in a rural district were interviewed during August 6 - November 14, 2003. Among them, 834 children whose missing data were less than $10\%$ were included the analysis. The independent variables included sociodemographic characteristics and education for smoking cigarette, while the dependent variables were knowledge about smoking, the children's smoking attitude and their intention of smoking. The data on sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics including frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The correlations between the independent variables and attitude and intention of smoking were analyzed using chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The results of this study were s follows. The factors that were found to be significantly correlated to smoking attitude include mother's smoking $(x^2=4.86,\;p=.03)$, grandmother's smoking $(x^2=5.56,\;p=.02)$, and knowledge of smoking cigarette $(x^2=-5.13 p<.01)$. The factors that were significantly correlated to the intention of smoking include gender $(x^2=.08,\; p=.02)$, education for smoking$(x^2=17.65,\;p<.01)$, mother's smoking $(x^2=19.05,\; p<.01)$, grandmother's smoking $(x^2=17.67,\; p<.01)$, and knowledge$(x^2=-2.17,\;p=.03)$. The children who had non smoking mother were more likely to have negative attitude (OR=2.29). The children who had a higher knowledge about smoking were more likely to have negative attitude (OR=1.58). The findings suggest that a smoking prevention program specific for preschool children is necessary to prevent early onset of smoking. The findings also suggest that the program should involve children's family members who influence their smoking attitude and intention.