열처리 대두에서 분리한 대두 단백질의 기능성

Functional Properties of Soy Protein Isolate from Heat Treated Soybean

  • 윤혜현 (경희대학교 조리과학과) ;
  • 전은재 (한남대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Yoon, Hye-Hyun (Department of Culinary Science and Arts, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Jeon, Eun-Jae (Department of Food & Nutrition, Hannam University)
  • 발행 : 2004.02.28

초록

대두 단백질의 기능성 변형 방법의 하나로 대두를 열처리 함에 의해 대두 단백질의 기능 특성에 어떠한 변화가 있는지 알아보기 위하여 대두를 $60^{\circ}C$에서 30, 60, 90과 120분 침지한 후 대두 분리 단백(SPI)을 제조하여 열처리하지 않은 대조군과 여러 가지 기능성을 비교하였다. 용해도 특성은 pH 4.5의 등전점 부근에서 최소의 용해도를 보였고 등전점 이하와 이상에서는 비교적 90% 넘는 높은 용해도를 나타내었다. 만리와 태광에서 모두 열처리 시간이 증가함에 따라 등전점 이하의 pH에서 용해도가 증가하였다. 수분흡수력도 열처리 시간이 증가함에 따라 증가하였고 만리의 경우 90분 시료에서 가장 높은 수분흡수력을 나타내었다. 유지흡수력은 만리의 경우 열처리 시간이 증가함에 따라 감소하였고 태광의 경우에는 60분 시료에서 최대값을 나타내었다. 유화 특성은 만리의 경우 열처리에 의해 유화활성도, 유화안정성과 유화형성력이 모두 대조군보다 유의하게 증가하였고, 태광의 경우에는 열처리에 의해 유화활성도와 유화형성력이 유의적으로 증가하였다. 만리의 경우 기포 팽창력과 기포안정성이 열처리에 의해 증가하였고, 만리와 태광 모두 기포팽창력이 90분 시료에서 최대값을 보였으며, 태광은 열처리에 의해 매우 불안정한 기포 안정성을 보였다. 겔의 TPA결과, 열처리 시간이 증가함에 따라 경도, 부착성, 탄성, 검성 및 씹힘성이 증가하였고 특히 모든 특성이 대체로 90분 시료에서 최고값을 보였다. 그러나 응집성은 열처리 시간이 증가함에 따라 감소하였다. 이상의 결과로 대두의 열처리에 의해 대두 단백질의 기능성이 변화하는 것을 알 수 있었고. 대두를 첨가물이나 식품가공재료로 사용할 때 이러한 변화를 고려하여 유용하게 활용할 수 있으리라 생각된다.

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