Microbial Assessment of Wild Cabbage and its Control

양배추의 미생물 오염도 평가 및 제어

  • Cho, Joon-Il (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Kim, Keun-Sung (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Bahk, Gyung-Jin (Korea Health Industry Development Institute) ;
  • Ha, Sang-Do (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University)
  • Published : 2004.02.28

Abstract

In this study, untreated (UT), water soaking (WT), and sanitizing solutions [chlorine at 100 ppm (CL): ethanol at 10% (ET); hydrogen peroxide at 1% (HP); chlorine at 100 ppm + ethanol at 10%(CE); chlorine at 100 ppm + hydrogen peroxide at 1% (CH); ethanol at 10% + hydrogen peroxide at 1% (EH); chlorine at 100 ppm + ethanol at 10% + hydrogen peroxide at 1% (CEH)] were compared in terms of their antimicrobial effectiveness against natural microflora of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). All samples were kept in sanitizing solutions for 2 min, and effectiveness of sanitizing agents was evaluated based on number of decimal reduction of total aerobic mesophilic, total coliforms, E. coli, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast and mold counts. Average initial levels of these organisms in samples were $9.21{\pm}0.15,\;6.60{\pm}0.06,\;6.08{\pm}0.03,\;and\;3.66{\pm}0.08\;log_{10}\;CFU/g$ for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds, respectively, Escherichia coli was not detected in any tested samples. Decimal reduction of populations of total aerobic mesophilic, total coliforms, E. coli, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds were: in $WT\;8.09,\;5.36,\;5.82,\;and\;3.57 log_{10}\;CFU/g;\;in \;CL\;7.39,\;4.10\;5.24,\;2.45\;log_{10}\;CFU/g;\;in\;ET\;6.78,\;4.23,\;5.20,\;2.50\;log_{10}\;CFU/g;\;in\;HP\;6.11,\;4.27,\;5.28,\;2.46\;log_{10}\;CFU/g;\;in\;CE\;6.18,\;4.26,\;5.31,\;2.49\;log_{10}\;CFU/g;\;in\;CH\;6.10,\;3.77,\;5.33,\;2.46\;log_{10}\;CFU/g;\;in\;EH\;6.07\;3.82,\;4.76,\;2.41\;log_{10}\;CFU/g;\;and\;in\;CEH\;5.27,\;3.45,\;4.45,\;2.15\;log_{10}\;CFU/g,$ respectively. Statistical analysis of the results showed effectiveness of CEH sanitizing solution for elimination of microbial contamination was the highest among all sanitizer treatments.

Keywords

wild cabbage;sanitizer;microbial assessment;ethanol;chlorine;hydrogen peroxide

References

  1. Skovgard N, Morgan CA. Detection of Listeria spp. in faces from animals, in feeds, and in raw foods of animal origin. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 6: 229-242 (1989) https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(88)90015-3
  2. Riley LW, Remis RS, Helgerson DD, Mcgee HB, Wells JG, Davis BR, Hebert RJ, Olcott ES, Johnson LM, Hargert NT. Blake PA, Cohen ML. Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. N. Engl. J. Med. 308: 681-685 (1983) https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198303243081203
  3. Lin CT, Morales RA, Ralston T. Raw and undercooked eggs, a danger of salmonellosis. Food Rev. 20: 27-32 (1997)
  4. Podlak RK, Zayas JF, Kastner CL, Fung DYC. Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157 : H7 and Salmonella typhimurium during storage on beef sanitized with fumaric, acetic and lactic acids. J. Food Safety 15: 283-290 (1995) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4565.1995.tb00140.x
  5. Kalchayanand N, Sikes T, Dunne CP, Ray B. Hydrostatic pressure and electroporation have increased bacterdial efficiency in combination with bacteriocins. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 4174-4177 (1994)
  6. Kim JM. Use of chlorine dioxide as a biocide in the food industry. Food Nutr. 6: 33-39 (2001)
  7. Park IS, Pack MY. Development of temporary preservation method for small scale dairy farm milk by H2O2 catalase treatment. Korean J. Appl. Microbiol. 5: 113-118 (1995)
  8. Kwon NH, Kim SH, Kim JY, Lim JY, Kim JM, Jung WK, Park KT, Bae WK, Noh KM, Choi JW, Hur J, Park YH. Antimicrobial acivity of GC-100X against major foodborne pathogens and detaching effects of it against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the surface of tomatoes. J. Food Hyg. Safety 17: 36-44 (2002)
  9. Nascimento MS, Silva N, Catanozi MPLM, Silva KC. Effects of different disinfection treatments on the natural microbiota of lettuce. J. Food Prot. 66: 1697-1700 (2003) https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-66.9.1697
  10. Brocklehurst TF, Zaman-Wong CM, Lung BM. A note on the microbiology of retail packs of salad vegetables, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 63: 409-418 (1987)
  11. FDA. Guidance for industry: reducting microbial food safety hazards for sprouted seeds and guidance for industry: sampling and microbial testing of spent irrigation water during sprout production. Fed. Regist. 64: 57893-57902 (2001)
  12. Beuchat LR, Brackett RE. Survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes on lettuce as influenced by shredding, chlorine treatment, modified, atmosphere packaging and temperature. J. Food Sci. 55: 755-759 (1992)
  13. Rice KM, Pierson MD. Inhibition of Salmonella by sodium nitrite and potassium sorbate in frankfurters. J. Food Sci. 47: 1615-1617 (1982) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1982.tb04995.x
  14. Oh DH, Marshall DL. Enhanced inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by glycerol monolaurate with organic acids. J. Food Sci. 59: 1258-1261 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1994.tb14690.x
  15. Park CS, Cameron RH. Effect of low ethanol concentrations on growth and survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Korean J. Food Soc. Food. Sci. Technol. 11: 153-157 (1995)
  16. SAS. SAS User's Guide, SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC 27513, USA (2002)
  17. Weiss J, Seeliger HPR. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in natural. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 6: 229-242 (1975)
  18. Fernandes CF, Flick GJ, Cohen J, Thomas TB. Role of organic acids during processing to improve quality of channel catfish fillets. J. Food Prot. 61: 495-498 (1998) https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-61.4.495
  19. Welshimer HJ. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from vegetation. J. Bacteriol. 95: 300-320 (1968)
  20. Marks S, Robert T. Escherichia coli O157 : H7 ranks as the fourth most costly foodborne disease. Food Rev. 16: 51-59 (1993)
  21. Kim DJ, Kwon OJ, Byun MW. Combination effects of benzoate, sorbate and pH for control of Escherichia coli O157 : H7. J. Food Hyg. Safety 12: 200-204 (1997)
  22. Shin JK, Pyun YR. Inactivation of Lactobacillus plantrum by pulsed-microwave irradiation. J. Food Sci. 62: 163-166 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1997.tb04391.x
  23. Kim KT, Kim SS, Hong HD, Ha SD, Lee YC. Quality changes and pasteurization effects of citrus fruit juice by high voltage pulsed electric fields(PEF) treatment. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 35: 635-641 (2003)
  24. Shigenobu K, Kazuhiro F, Kazuhiko I. Decontamination effect of frozen acidic electrolyzed water on lettuce. J. Food Prot. 65: 411-414 (2002) https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-65.2.411
  25. Bergdoll MS. In Foodborne Infections and Intoxication. 2nd ed. Bryan FL, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA (1979)
  26. Mislivec PB, Beuchat LR, Cousin MA. Yeasts and molds. Chapter Examination of Food. Splittstoesser DF, Vanderzant C (3rd ed). American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA (1991)
  27. Garg N, Churey JJ, Splittstoesser DF. Effect of processing conditions on the microflora of fresh-cut vegetables. J. Food Prot. 53: 701-708 (1990) https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-53.8.701
  28. Qin BL, Pothakamurry UR, Vega H, Martin O. Babosa-Canovas, G.V. and Swanson, B.G. Food pasteurization using high-intensity pulsed electric fields. Food Technol. 49: 55-60 (1995)
  29. Kim YJ, Cho JI, Kim KS. Evaluation of washing treatment using chlorine and heat hurdles on natural microflora in fresh lettuces collected from domestic markets. Food Engin. Progress 6: 329-335 (2002)
  30. Beuchat LR, Nail BV, Adler BB, Clavero MRS. Efficacy of spray application of chlorinated water in killing pathogenic bacteria on raw apple, tomatoes, and lettuce. J. Food Prot. 61: 1305-1311 (1998) https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-61.10.1305
  31. Wehr HM. Listeria monocytogenes-A Current dilemma. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem 70: 769 (1987)
  32. Park CS. Inhibition of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by ethanol in tryptic soy broth and some fish homogenenates. Korean J. Food Soc. Food. Sci. Technol. 12: 6-12 (1996)
  33. Ahn YS, Shin DH. Antimicrobial effects of organic acids and ethanol on several foodborne microorganisms. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 31: 1315-1323 (1999)
  34. Ita PS, Hutkins SW. Intracellular pH survival of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and effect in trypic soy broth containing acetic, lactic, citric and hydrochloric acids. J. Food Prot. 54: 15-19 (1991) https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-54.1.15
  35. Young KM, Foegeding PM. Acetic, lactic, citric acids and pH inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and effect on intracellular pH. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 74: 515-520 (1993)
  36. Richardson GH. Standard Methods for the Examination of Diary Products. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA (1985)
  37. Restino L, Lyon RH. Efficacy of petrifilm VRB for enumerating coliforms and Escherichia coli from frozen raw beef. J. Food Prot. 50: 1017-1022 (1987) https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-50.12.1017
  38. Hauschild AHW. 1989. Clostridium perfringens. In: Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Doyle MP (ed). Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA (1987)
  39. Beauchat LR, Brackett RE. Survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes on lettuce as influenced by shredding, chlorine treatment, modified atmosphere packaging and temperature. J. Food Sci. 55: 755-758 (1990) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb05222.x
  40. Johnson KM, Nelson CL, Busta FF. Influence of temperature on germination and growth of spores of emetic and diarrheal strains of Bacillus cereus in a broth medium and in rice. J. Food Sci. 48: 286-287 (1983) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1983.tb14853.x
  41. Park CS, Kim ML. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by low concentration of ethanol. Korean J. Food Soc. Food. Sci. Technol. 11: 379-385 (1995)