Establishment of Hygienic Standards for Pizza Restaurant Based on HACCP Concept -Focused on Pizza Production-

HACCP의 적용을 위한 피자 전문 레스토랑의 위생관리 기준 설정 -피자생산을 중심으로-

  • 이복희 (중앙대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과) ;
  • 허경숙 (중앙대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과) ;
  • 김인호 (한국식품개발연구원)
  • Published : 2004.02.28


Hygienic standards for pizza specialty restaurant located in Seoul during summer, 2000 were established based on HACCP concept by measuring temperature, time, pH, $A_{w}$ and microbiological assessments of pizza, and evaluation of hygienic conditions of kitchens and workers. Kitchen and worker conditions were average 1.2 and 1.0 (3 point Sly's scale), respectively, Microbial contaminations occurred at $5-60^{\circ}C$, pH above 5.0, and $A_{w}$ (0.93-0.98). Microbial assessments for pizza processing revealed $1.5{\times}10^{2}-3.9{\times}10^{8}\;CFU/g$ of TPC and $0.5{\times}10^{1}-1.6{\times}10^{7}\;CFU/g$ of coliforms, exceeding standards ($TPC\;10^{6}\;CFU/g\;and\;coliform\;10^{3}\;CFU/g$) established by Solberg et al., although significantly decreased after baking. S. aureus was not discovered, but Salmonella was found in onions. Tools and containers such as pizza cutting knife, topping container, serving bowl, pizza plate, working board, and dough kneading board contained $6.2{\times}10^{2}-1.1{\times}10^{9}\;CFU/g$ of TPC, $2.0{\times}10^{1}-6.2{\times}10^{3}\;CFU/g$ of coliforms. Workers' hands contained $3.1{\times}10^{4}\;CFU/g$ of TPC and S. aureus as compared to safety standards of Harrigan and McCance (500 and 10 CFU/g of TPC and coliforms per $100cm^{2}$). CCPs (critical control points) were determined as receiving, topping, and baking according to CCP decision tree analysis. Results suggest purchase of quality materials, careful monitoring of time and temperature, hygienic use of tools and utensils, and sanitary practicer by workers are recommended as control points for safe pizza production.


HACCP;hygienic standareds;microbiological food quality;pizza production


  1. Ryu ES, Kwak TK. A model for the improvement of the foodservice management structure of fast food restaurants. Korean J. Diet. Cult. 5(4): 456-457 (1990)
  2. Kim KW. Franchising strategy in the Korean industry. MS thesis, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea (1992)
  3. Kang KH, Choi SK, Kim KM, Kim HR, Ko AK, Park SI. Prediction of the cause of bacterial contamination in kimbab and Its ingredients. Korean J. Fd. Hyg. Safety 10(3): 175-180 (1995)
  4. Lee YW, Hong JH. Epidemic characteristics of food poisoning outbreaks reported in Korea, 1981-1989. Korean J. Food Hyg. 5: 205-212 (1990)
  5. Kang YJ. What is HACCP. Food Sci. Ind. 26: 4-16 (1993)
  6. AOAC. Bacteriological Analysis Manual. 5th ed. FDA. Washington, DC, USA (1987)
  7. Jun HJ, Lee YK, Paik JE, Ju NM. Assessment for management of the foodservice industry in Seoul through the survey-2. The types of foodservice system, the Menu, the Food price, and role of the dietitian for the white and blue color group. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 10: 277-283 (1994)
  8. Kang YJ. Practical Business Affairs Make Use of HACCP System. Suhaksa. Seoul, Korea. p. 20, p. 26, p. 43, p. 61 (1999)
  9. Korea Food and Drug Administration. Notification 2000-50. KFDA, Seoul, Korea (2000)
  10. Rowley DB, Tuomy JM, Lewis F. Experiment in Application of Food Technology and Engineering to Central Food Preparation. United States Army Natick Laboratories, Natick, MA, USA (1972)
  11. Solberg M, Buckalew JJ, Chen CM, Schaffner DW, O'Neill K, McDowell J, Post LS, Boderck M. Microbiological safety assurance system for foodservice facilities. Food Technol. 44(12): 68-73 (1990)
  12. Korea Food Industry Association. Korean Food Code. KFIA, Seoul, Korea (2000)
  13. Spears MC, Vaden AG. Food Service Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA (1985)
  14. Kwak DK, Kim SH, Park, SJ, Cho, YS, Choi EH. The improvement of the sanitary production and distribution practices for packaged meals (kimpab) marketed in convenience stores using hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) System. Korean J. Fd. Hyg. Safety. 11(3): 177-187 (1996)
  15. Korea Food Industry Association. Food Sanitation Act. KFIA, Seoul, Korea (1994)
  16. Kim KS, Kim DY, Jung KS. Food Science. Jigumunhawsa. Seoul, Korea (1994)
  17. Difco. Difco Manual of Dehydrated Culture Media and Reagents for Microbial and Clinical Laboratory Procedures. Difco laboratories. Detroit, MI, USA (1998)
  18. Yang JS. Food safety and HACCP. Food Sci. Ind. 30: 172-182 (1997)
  19. Dahl CA, Matthews ME, Marth EH. Survial of Streptococcus facium in beef loaf and potatoes after microwave-heating in a simulated cook/chill foodservice system. J. Food Prot. 44: 128 (1981)
  20. Harrigan WF, McCance ME. Laboratory Method in Food and Dairy Microbiology. Academic Press Inc. Ltd. New York, NY, USA (1976)
  21. Kim JK. Analysis of problems of food service establishments contributing to food poisoning outbreaks discovered through the epidemiological studies of some outbreaks. Korean J. Fd. Hyg. Safety 12(3): 240-242 (1997)
  22. Kye SH. Hazard analysis and critical control points of one-dish meal prepared at Korean restaurants: naeng-myeun (cold noodles) and pi-bim bab (mixed rice). Korean J. Food Cult. 10: 167-174 (1995)
  23. KFDA. Outbreak Present State and Preventive Measures of Food Poisoning. KFDA, Seoul, Korea (2000)
  24. Bryan FL, Bartleson, CA, Sugi M. Hazard analysis of Char Sie and roast pork is Chinese restaurants and market. J. Food Prot. 45: 422 (1982)
  25. Lee KY, Moon SJ, Son KH, Lee YJ, Yoon S, Kwak TK. The dietary habits of the Korean: the past, now and future. Korean J. Food Cult. Res. Inst. 2: 565-567 (1998)
  26. USPHS. Recommendations of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service. U.S. Public Health Service, Washington, DC, USA (2000)
  27. Ju SH, Kim HY. A study on microbiological quality & safety control of cold soybean noodles serviced by an industry foodservice establishment (I). Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 4(2): 71-79 (1998)
  28. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Notification 1996-75. MHW, Seoul, Korea (1996)
  29. Mun JS. Explanation of Food Sanitation Act-focus on food health control. Food Sci. Ind. 29: 22-32 (1996)
  30. Speck ML. Compendium of method for the microbiological examination of food. 2nd ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA (1984)
  31. Gilbert RJ, Louvois J De, Donovan T, Little C, Nye K, Ribeiro CD, Richards J, Roberts D, Bolton FJ. Guidelines for the microbiological quality of some ready-to-eat foods sampled at the point of sale. Comm. Dis. Pub. Health 3(3): 163-167 (2000)
  32. KFR. Dining Out Brand Balancing Account of 1999 and View of 2000. Monthly Publication Restaurant, Seoul, Korea (2000)
  33. Sly T, Ross E. Chinese food: relationship between hygiene and bacterial flora. J. Food Prot. 45: 115 (1982)
  34. Korean Food Yearbook. AGRIIS, Seoul, Korea (2000)
  35. Sim KH, Kim SA. Utilization state of fast foods among Korean youth in Big Cities. Korean J. Nutr. 26: 804-811 (1993)
  36. Park MH. Investigation of Hygiene Control State in Foodservice Operations. Institute of Industry Technical Research, Taegu, Korea (1984)