Improved Storage Stability of Brown Rice by Coating with Rice Bran Protein

쌀겨 단백질 코팅에 의한 현미의 저장성 향상

  • Kim, Kyung-Mi (Department of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Konkuk University) ;
  • Jang, In-Suk (Department of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Konkuk University) ;
  • Ha, Sang-Do (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Bae, Dong-Ho (Department of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Konkuk University)
  • 김경미 (건국대학교 응용생물화학과) ;
  • 장인숙 (건국대학교 응용생물화학과) ;
  • 하상도 (중앙대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 배동호 (건국대학교 응용생물화학과)
  • Published : 2004.06.30


Brown rice grains were coated by spraying aqueous protein solution extracted from rice bran using 10% ethanol, and dried at room temperature. Coating procedure was repeated 1-5 times to determine effect of repeated coating, Quality changes in coated brown rice grains were observed during 8 weeks storage. Most coated rice grains gave lower peroxide and acid values, which indicate antioxidative effects of coating. Lipase and lipoxygenase activities generally decreased in grains coated more than three times. Microscopic images of whole kernel and longitudinal section revealed cracking on all brown rice grains including control, and hydration rate constants were not significantly different among treated grains. Compared to non-coated brown rice grains, those coated more than three times, after 8 week storage, showed better quality retention observed in (meaning not clear) higher water-binding capacity, lower gel consistency decrease, less browning, and better textural properties in cooked rice, resulting in better sensory quality.


  1. Shibuya N, Iwasaki T, Yanase H, Chikuko S. Studies on deterioration of rice during storage, Part I. Changes of brown rice and milled rice during storage. Jpn. J. Soc. Food Sci. Technol. 21: 597-603 (1974)
  2. Shin MG, Thee JS, Kwon TW. Effects of amylase activity on changes in amylogram characteristics during storage of brown rice. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49: 2505-2508 (1985)
  3. Lee SE, Kim DC, Kim SS, Kim YE, Park HW, Jung JE. Development of Distribution Method and Packaging Technology for Quality Preservation of Milled Rice. MAF, Seoul, Korea (2000)
  4. Gennadios A, Weller CL, Testin RF. Property modification of edible wheat gluten based films. Trans. ASAE 36: 1004-1009 (1993)
  5. Trezza TA, Vergano PJ. Grease resistance of corn-zein coated paper. J. Food Sci. 59: 912-915 (1994)
  6. Kahlon TS, Chow FI, Sayre RN, Betschart AA. Related articles cholesterol-lowering in hamsters fed rice bran at various levels, defatted rice bran and rice bran oil. J. Nutr. 122: 513-519 (1992)
  7. Gnanasambandam R, Hettiarachchy NS, Coleman M. Mechanical and barrier properties of rice bran films. J. Food Sci. 62: 395-398 (1997)
  8. Bae DH, Jang IS. Development of new food protein through chemical modification of rice bran proteins. Korean Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 42(4): 180-185 (1999)
  9. Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GH. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226: 497-509 (1957)
  10. AOAC. Official Method of Analysis 965.33. Association of Official Anaiytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA (1984)
  11. Kim SK, Suh CS. Water uptake rate of brown rice at 100oC. Korean J. Agric. Chem. Soc. 33: 261-263 (1990)
  12. Medcalt DG, Gills KA. Wheat starch. I, Comparison of physicochemical properties. Cereal Chem. 42: 558-568 (1965)
  13. Bhattacharya KR, Sowbhagya CM. Pasting behavior of rice: A new method of viscography. J. Food Sci. 44: 797-800 (1979) 40. SPSS. SPSS Program. Version 10.0. SPSS Institute, Chicago, IL, USA (2000)
  14. Webb BD. Criteria of rice quality in the United States. pp. 403- 407. In: Rice, Chemistry and Technology. Am. Assoc. Cereal Chem., St. Paul, MN, USA (1985)
  15. Axelrod B, Cheesgrough TM, Haakso S. Lipoxygenase from soybeans. Methods Enzymol. 71: 441-446 (1981)
  16. Kum JS, Lee CH, Back KH, Lee SH, Lee HY. Influence of cultivar on rice starch and cooking properties. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 27: 365-369 (1995)
  17. Pushpamma P, Reddy MU. Physico-chemical changes in rice and Jowar Durra stored in different agroclimatic regions of Andhra Pradesh. Bull. Grain Technol. 17: 97-108 (1979)
  18. Chrastil J. Chemical and physicochemical changes of rice during storage at different temperature. J. Cereal Sci. 11: 71-85 (1990)
  19. Lee JH. Kim SS, Suh DS, Kim KO. Effects of storage from and period of refrigerated rice on sensory properties of cooked rice and on physicochemical properties of milled and cooked rice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 33: 427-436 (2001)
  20. Lee SJ. Water addition ratio affected texture properties of cooked rice. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nur. 25: 810-816 (1996)
  21. Kang KJ, Kim K, Kim SK. Relationship between molecular structure of rice amylopectin and texture of cooked rice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 27: 105-111 (1995)
  22. Okabe M. Texture measurement of cooked rice and its relationship to eating quality. J. Texture Stud. 10: 131-152 (1979)
  23. Muramoto G, Kawamura S. Rice protein and antihypertensive peptide (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) from rice. Nippon Shokuhin Kougyo 34: 18-26 (1991)
  24. Barber S. Rice: Chemistry and Technology. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, USA (1972)
  25. Avena-Bustillos RJ, Cisneros-Zevallos LA, Krochta JM, Saltveit ME. Optimization of edible coatings on minimally processed carrots using response surface methodology. Trans. ASAE 36: 801-809 (1993)
  26. Lieverman ER, Gilbert SG. Gas permeation of collagen films as affected by cross-linkage, moisture, and plasticizer content. J. Polym. Sci. 41: 33-43 (1973)
  27. Betschart AA, Fong RY, Saunders RM. Rice by-products: Comparative extraction and precipitation of nitrogen from USA and Spanish bran and germ. J. Food Sci. 42: 1088-1093 (1977)
  28. Hildebrand DF, Kito M. Role of lipoxygenase in soybean seed protein quality. J. Agric. Food Chem. 32: 815-819 (1984)
  29. Ohta H, Ida S, Mikami B, Mortia Y. Changes of lipoxygenase components of rice seedings during germination. Plant Cell Physiol. 27(5): 911-916 (1986)
  30. Keith L, Hargrove J. Processing and utilization of rice bran in the United States. p. 383. In: Rice Science and Technology. Marshall WE, Wadsworth JI (eds). Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, USA (1993)
  31. Lee SY, Pyun KW, Park YJ. Comparative studies on hydration kinetics of raw and fermented brown rices. Korean Food Eng. Prog. 6(2): 178-185 (2002)
  32. Indudhan Swamy YM, Sowbhangya CM, Bhattacharya KR. Changes in the physicochemical properties of rice with aging. J. Sci. Food Agric. 29: 627-639 (1978)
  33. Herald TJ. Gnanasambandam R, McGuire BH, Hachmeister KA. Degradable wheat gluten films Preparation, properties, and applications. J. Food Sci. 60: 1147-1150 (1995)
  34. Moritaka S, Yasumatsu K. Studies on cereals. X. The effect of sulfhydryl groups on storage deterioration of milled rice. Elyo To Shokuryo 25: 59-62 (1972)
  35. Kester JJ, Fennema OR. Edible films and coatings: a review. J. Food Sci. 40: 47-59 (1986)
  36. So KH, Kim YS, Hong JS, Jeong JY, Cho CM. Characteristic of the rice quality with long-term storage of paddy. Korean J. Food Nutr. 13: 21-27 (2000)
  37. Kim KJ, Rhee CO. Lipoxygenase activity of milled fraction from brown rice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 29: 145-149 (1997)
  38. Gennadios A, Weller CL. Edible films and coatings from wheat and corn proteins. Food Technol. 44: 63 -69 (1990)
  39. Cosler HB. Prevention of staleness, rancidity in nut meats and peanuts. Peanut J. Nut World 37: 10-11, 15 (1958)
  40. Saunders RM. The properties of rice bran as a food-stuff. Cereal Foods World 35: 633-634 (1990)
  41. Chen L, Houston DF. Solubilization and recovery of protein from defatted rice bran. Cereal Chem. 47: 72-79 (1970) 24. Connor MA, Saunder RM, Kohler GO. Rice bran protein concentrates obtained by wet alkaline extraction. Cereal Chem. 53: 488-496 (1976)
  42. Hizukuri S, Takeda Y, Maruta N, Julianomo BO. Molecular structure of rice starch. Carbohydr. Res. 189: 227-232 (1989)
  43. Bechtel DB, Juliano BO. Formation of protein bodies in the starchy endosperm of rice (Oryza sativa) a reinvestigation. Ann. Botany London 45: 503-509 (1980)
  44. Guilbert S. Technology and application of edible protective films. p. 371. In: Food Packaging and Preservation, Theory, and Practice. Mathlouthi M (ed). Elservier Applied Science Pub. Co., London, England (1986)
  45. Kim YB, Han WN, Yoo TJ. Effects of rice weevil and mold on quality of stored rice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 17: 399-402 (1985)
  46. Cagampang GB, Perez CM, Juliano BO. A gel consistency test for eating quality of rice. J. Sci. Food Agri. 24: 1589-1595 (1973)
  47. Bera MB, Mukherjee RK. Solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of rice bran protein concentrates. J. Food Sci. 54: 142-145 (1989)
  48. Kim BM. Separation and properties of crude lipase activator from green pepper, Capsicum annuun Lin. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 22: 13-16 (1990)
  49. Hildebrand DF, Hamilton-Kemp TR, Loughrin JH, Ali K, Anderson RA. Lipoxygenase-3 reduces hexanal production from soybean seed homogenates. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 1934-1936 (1990)
  50. Park KH. Effect of rice protein and lipid gelatinization properties, cooking quality, and palatability of Korean rice. PhD thesis, Kyunghee University, Seoul, Korea (1996)
  51. Avena-Bustillos RJ, Krochta JM. Gas permeation of collagen films as affected by cross-linkage, moisture, and plasticizer content. J. Polym. Sci. 41: 33-43 (1993)
  52. Cho EJ, Kim SK. Changes in physicochemical properties of brown and milled rice during storage. Korean J. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 31: 24-33 (1990)
  53. Hsu KH, Kim CJ, Wilson LA. Factors affecting water uptake of soybeans during soaking. Cereal Chem. 60: 208-211 (1983)
  54. Rural Resources Development Institute. Food Ingredients (6th ed.). Available from index.asp. Accessed Oct. 5, 2003
  55. Park SK, Cho JM, Lee YS, Rhee CO. Extending shelf-life of rice cake using coating agent containing soy protein isolate. Korean J. Postharvest Sci. Technol. 8(2): 181-186 (2001)
  56. Kim YB, Cho DH. Types of deterioration of storage rice in Korea and identification of the causative microorganisms (II). J. Korean Agri. Chem. Soc. 17: 54-62 (1973)
  57. Matoba T, Hidaka H, Narita H, Kitamura K, Kazuma N, Kito M. Lipoxygenase-2 isozyme is responsible for generation of n-hexanal in soybean homogenate. J. Agric. Food Chem. 33: 852-856 (1985)
  58. Kim BS, Park NH, Jo KS, Kang TS, Shin DH. Comparison of quality stability of rice and rice flour during storage. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 20: 498-503 (1988)
  59. Kim KH, Ahn JK. Classification of gram type and marketing grades for Korea rice varieties. Korean J. Crop Sci. 42: 357-366 (1997)
  60. Kumar KR, Ali SZ. Properties of rice from paddy stored in cold and at room temperature. Starch 43: 165-168 (1991)
  61. Holman RT, Bergstorm S. Lipoxygenase. Vol. 2, pp. 559-560. In: The Enzyme: Chemistry and Mechanism of Action. Sommer JB, Myrback K (ed). Acacemic Press Inc., New York, NY, USA (1951)
  62. Ida S, Ohata H, Mikami B, Morita Y. Purification and characterization of rice lipoxygenase component 3 from embryos. Agric. Biol. Chem. 50: 3165-3171 (1986)
  63. Brandenburg AH, Weller CL, Testin RF. Edible films and coatings from say protein. J. Food Sci. 58: 1086-1089 (1993)
  64. Gillard T. Rancidity in cereal products. pp. 141-143. In: Rancidity in Food. Allen JC, Hamilton RJ (ed). Elsevier Applied Science, New York, NY, USA (1989)
  65. Pinsky A, Gross S, Trop, M. Lipxygenase content and antioxidant activity of some furits and vegetables. J. Food Sci. 36: 571-573 (1986)
  66. Beaker HA. A study of diffusion in solids of arbitrary shape with application to the drying of the wheat kernel. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1(2): 212-226 (1959)
  67. Yoon IH, Lee BM. Post-harvest technologies for quality enhancement, enhancement of quality and variety of rice to increase the international competitive power. Rural Res. Develop. Inst., Import Problem Symp. 45: 76-79 (1990)
  68. Moritaka S, Sawada K, Yasumatsu K. Studies on cereals. VII. Relation between lipid content of milled rice and deterioration of rice flavors during storage. Eiyo To Shokuryo 24: 474-476 (1971)
  69. Yasurnastsu K, Moritaka S, Karimura T. Fatty acid composition of rice lipid and their changes during storage. Agri. Biol. Chem. 28: 257-262 (1964)