Various Properties and Phenolic Acid Contents of Rices and Rice Brans with Different Milling Fractions

품종 및 도정도별 백미와 미강의 특성 및 페놀산 함량

  • Published : 2004.12.31


Effects of rice cultivars and degree of milling (DM) on composition, pasting properties, total phenolic contents, and distribution of phenolic acids were investigated. Rice and bran fractions with 94.4, 92.0, and 90.4% milling yields from brown rice of four cultivars (Odae, Nampyung, Chucheong, and Ilmi) were used. Fat and ash contents of milled rices decreased with increasing DM, whereas protein contents were not affected. In rice bran, differences in fat and ash contents by cultivars were higher than those caused by DM. With increasing DM, gelatinization temperature of rice flour decreased, whereas peak viscosity and hold viscosity at $95^{\circ}C$ increased. While cold viscosity, final viscosity, and setback varied among cultivars, DM had little effect. Total polyphenolic contents in brown rice, milled rice, and rice bran were 93.9-88.8, 30.3-71.9, and 310.0-541.6 mg catechin eq/100g, respectively. Major phenolic compounds were identified as ferulic and p-coumaric acids. Total phenolic content of brown rice (65.9-27.9 mg%) decreased with increasing DM, whereas ratio of ferulic acid composition increased. Chucheong and Ilmi varieties showed biggest reduction of phenolic acid contents by milling. In rice bran, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were 157.8-240.2 and 31.8-90.4 mg%, respectively. Contents of sinapinic, benzoic, and m-hydroxybenzoic acids in rice bran were higher than those of brown and milled rices.


rice;bran;degree of milling;gelatinization;phenolic acid


  1. Choe JS, Ahn HH, Nam HJ. Comparison of nutritional composition in Korean rices. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 31: 885-892 (2002)
  2. Capro PA, Reaven G, Olefsky J. Postgrandial plasma-glucose and insulin responses to different complex carbohydrate. Diabetes 26: 1178-1183 (1977)
  3. Slavin J, Jacobs D, Marquart L. Whole-grain consumption and chronic disease. Prot. Mech. Nutr. Cancer 27: 14-21 (1997)
  4. Kennedy BM, Schelstraete M, Del Rosario AR. Chemical, physical, and nutritional properties of high protein flours and residual kernel from the over milling of uncoated milled rice. 1. Milling procedure and protein, fat, ash, amylose, and starch content. Cereal Chem. 51: 435-448 (1974)
  5. Ohta T, Semboku N, Kuchii A, Egashira Y, Sanada H. Antioxidant activity of corn bran cell-wall fragments in LDL oxidation system. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45: 1644-1648 (1997)
  6. Graf E. Antioxidant potential of ferulic acid. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28: 1249-1256 (2000)
  7. Balasubashini MS, Rukkumani R, Menon VP. Protective effects of ferulic acid on hyperlipidemic diabetic rats. Acta. Diabetol. 40: 118-122 (2003)
  8. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis Intl. 15th ed. Method 985.01. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA (1990)
  9. Yoon SH, Kim SK. Physicochemical properties of rice differing in milling degrees. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 13: 57-62(2004)
  10. Vallareal CP, Maranville JW, Juliano BO. Nutrient content and retention during milling of brown rices from the International Rice Research Institute. Cereal Chem. 68: 437-439 (1991)
  11. Xu Z, Hua N, Godber JS. Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and r-oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropinamine) dihydrochloride. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 2077-2081 (2001)
  12. Bourne LC, Rice-Evans C. Bioavailability of ferulic acid. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 253: 222-227 (1998)
  13. Antella S, Antonio T, Rosella LC, Domenico T, Anna P, Anna DP, Nicola U, Francesco B. Ferulic and caffeic acids as potential protective agents against photooxidative skin damage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79: 476-480 (1999)<476::AID-JSFA270>3.0.CO;2-L
  14. Song BH, Kim DH, Kim SG, Kim YD, Choi KS. Distribution of minerals within the degermed brown rice kernel. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 31: 162-165 (1988)
  15. Bunzel M, Allerdings E, Sinwell V, Ralph J, Steinhart H, Cell wall hydroxycinnamates in wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.) insoluble dietary fibre. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 214: 482-488 (2002)
  16. Kikuzaki H, Hisamoto M, Hirose K, Akiyama K, Taniguchi H. Antioxidant properties of ferulic acid and its related compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 2161-2168 (2002)
  17. Rondini L, Maillard MNP, Baglieri AM, Fromentin G, Durand P, Tome D, Prost M, Berset C. Bound ferulic acid from bran is more available than the free compound in rat. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 4338-4343 (2004)
  18. Cai R, Hettiarachchy NS, Jalaluddin M. High performance liquid chromatography determination of phenolic constituents in 17 varieties nof cowpeas. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 1623-1627 (2003)
  19. Tian S, Nakamura K, Kayahara H. Analysis of phenolic compounds in white rice, brown rice, and germinated brown rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 4808-4813 (2004)
  20. Ogiwara T, Satoh K, Murakami Y, Unten S, Atsu T, Sakagami H, Fujisawa S. Radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of ferulic acid. Anticancer Res. 22: 2711-2717 (2002)
  21. Andreason MF, Christensen LP, Meyer AS, Hansen A. Release of hydrocinnamic and hydrobenzoic acids in rye by commercial plant cell degrading enzyme preparation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79: 411-413 (1999)<411::AID-JSFA264>3.0.CO;2-X
  22. Kim IH, Chun HS. Composition of fatty acid and phenolic acid in rice with different milling fractions. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 25: 721-726 (1996)
  23. Park JK. Kim SS, Kim KO. Effect of milling ratio on sensory properties of cooked rice and on physicochemical properties of milled and cooked rice. Cereal Chem. 78: 151-156 (2001)
  24. Chun HS, You JE, Kim IH, Cho JS. Comparative antimutagenic and antioxidative activities of rice with different milling fractions. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 31: 1371-1377 (1999)
  25. Perdon AA, Siebenmorgen TJ, Mauromoustakos A, Griffin VK, Johnson ER. Degree of milling effects on rice properties. Cereal Chem. 78: 205-209 (2001)
  26. Sowbhagya CM, Bhattacharya KR. Changes in pasting behavior of rice during ageing. J. Cereal Sci. 34: 115-124 (2001)
  27. Andreasen MF, Landbo AK, Christensen LP, Hansen A, Mayer AS. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydroxydimers on human low-density lipoproteins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 4090-4096 (2001)
  28. Batolome B, Gomez-Cordoves C. Barley spent grain: release of hydroxycinnamic acid (ferulic and p-coumaric acids) by commercial enzyme preparation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79: 435-439 (1999)<435::AID-JSFA272>3.0.CO;2-S
  29. Kim YS, Lee NY, Hwang CS, Yu MJ, Back KH, Shin DH. Changes of physicochemical characteristics of rice milled by newly designed abrasive milling machine. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 33: 152-157 (2004)
  30. Andreason MF, Christenson LP, Meyer AS, Hansen A. Release of hydroxycinnamic acid hydroxybenzoic acid in rye by commercial cell wall degrading enzyme preparations. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79: 411-413 (1999)<411::AID-JSFA264>3.0.CO;2-X
  31. Champagne ET, Marshall WE, Goynes WR. Effects of degree of milling and lipid removal on starch gelatinization in the brown rice kernel. Cereal Chem. 67: 570-574 (1990)
  32. Adom KK, Rui HL. Antioxidant activity of grains. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 6182-6187 (2002)
  33. Zhou K, Su Lan, Yu L. Phytochemicals and antioxidant properties in wheat bran. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 6108-6114 (2004)
  34. Zhou Z, Robards K, Helliwell S, Blanchard C. The distribution of phenolic acids in rice. Food Chem. 87: 401-406 (2004)
  35. Nicolsi RJ, Rogers EJ, Ausman LM, Orthefer FT. Rice bran oil and its health benefits. pp. 421-437. In: Rice Science and Technology. Marshal WE, Wadsworth JI (eds). Marcel Dekker, New York, USA (1993)