DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Phase Feeding and Sugar Beet Pulp on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Urea Nitrogen, Nutrient Excretion and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs

Ko, T.G.;Lee, J.H.;Kim, B.G.;Min, T.S.;Cho, S.B.;Han, In K.;Kim, Y.Y.

  • Received : 2003.09.09
  • Accepted : 2003.12.30
  • Published : 2004.08.01

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of phase feeding and sugar beet pulp (SBP) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs. A total of 128 pigs were allotted at 53.9 kg BW to 8 replicates in a 2$\times$2 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. The first factor was phase feeding (2 or 3 phase feeding) and SBP (SBP: 0% or 10%) was the second factor. Ten percent SBP supplement groups showed lower average daily feed intake (ADFI) than 0% SBP supplement groups (p<0.05). However, there were no significant difference in average daily gain (ADG) and feed:gain ratio among treatments during overall experimental period. Nutrient digestibility was not affected by phase feeding or SBP supplementation. Urinary nitrogen excretion in 10% SBP supplement group was lower than that in 0% SBP supplement group (p<0.05) and total nitrogen excretion was lower in SBP supplement group than in the group without SBP. Urinary and total nitrogen were numerically decreased in three phase feeding compared to two phase feeding. The BUN concentration in three phase feeding groups was lower than two phase feeding groups at 47 and 63 day (p<0.05). Consequently, results of this experiment demonstrated that three phase feeding was more acceptable than two phase feeding for finishing pigs. And sugar beet pulp could be supplemented in finishing pig diet for decreasing urinary nitrogen excretion without retardation in growth performance of pigs.

Keywords

Phase Feeding;Sugar Beet Pulp;Growth Performance;Nitrogen Excretion;Finishing Pigs

References

  1. Canh, T. T., M. W. A. Verstegen, A. J. A. Aranink and J. W. Schrama. 1997. Influence of dietary factors on nitrogen partitioning and composition of urine and feces of fattening pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:700-706.
  2. Chiba, L. I., A. J. Lewis and E. R. Peo, Jr. 1991. Amino acid and energy interrelationships in pigs weighing 20 to 50 kilograms: I. rate and effiency of weight gain. J. Anim. Sci. 69:694-707.
  3. Cromwell, G. L., T. R. Cline, J. D. Crenshaw, T. D. Crenshaw, R. C. Ewan, C. R. Hamilton, A. J. Lewis, D. C. Mahan, E. R. Miller, J. E. Pettigrew, L. F. Tribble and T. L. Veum. 1993. The dietary protein and (or) lysine requirements of barrows and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1515-1519.
  4. den Hartog, L. A., J. Huisman, W. J. G. Thielen, G. H. A. van Schyk, H. Boer and E. J. Weerden. 1988. The effect of including various structural polysaccharides in pig diets on ileal and faecal digestibility of amino acids and minerals. Livest. Prod. Sci. 18:157-170.
  5. Freire, J. P. B., A. J. G. Guerreiro, L. F. Cunha and A. Aumaitre. 2000. Effect of dietary fibre source on total tract digestibility, caecum volatile fatty acids and digestive transit time in the weaned piglet. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 87:71-83.
  6. Jorgensen, H., X. Q. Zhao and B. O. Eggum. 1996. The influence of dietary fibre and environmental temperature on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility, degree of fermentation in the hind-gut and energy metabolism in pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 75:365-378.
  7. Ko, T. G., J. H. Lee, T. S. Min, Y. Y. Kim and In K. Han. 2003. Study on the development of the optimum feeding regimen for pigs weaned at 21 days of age. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1518-1523.
  8. Le Bellego, L. and J. Noblet. 2002. Performance and utilization of dietary energy and amino acids in piglets fed low protein diet. Livestock Production Science 76:45-58.
  9. Yen, H. T., D. J. A. Cole and D. Lewis. 1986a. Amino acid requirements of growing pigs. 7. The response of pigs from 25 to 55 kg liveweight to dietary ideal protein. Anim. Prod. 43:141-154.
  10. Longland, A. C. and A. G. Low. 1988. Digestion of diets containing molassed or plain sugar-beet pulp by growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 23:67-78.
  11. Low, A. G. 1985. Role of dietary fibre in pig diets. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition (Ed. W. Haresign and D. J. A. Cole). Butterworths, London. p. 87.
  12. NRC. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.
  13. Paik, I. K., R. Blair and J. Jacob. 1996. Strategies to reduce environmental pollution from animal manure: Principles and nutritional management. A review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 9:615-635.
  14. Malmlof, K. 1985. Effects of wheat straw meal on some blood plasma variables in the growing pig. In: Pig Research at the Department of Animal Nutrition and Management 1974-1984. Swedish University of Agricultural Science 152:16.
  15. Jongbloed, A. W. and N. Lenis. 1992. Alteration of nutrition as a means to reduce environmental pollution by pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 31:75.
  16. Mosenthin, R., W. C. Sauer and F. Ahren. 1994. Dietary pectin's effect on ileal and fecal amino acid digestibility and exocrine pancreatic secretions in growing pigs. J. Nutr. 124:1222-1229.
  17. Canh, T. T., A. J. A. Aarnink, M. W. A. Verstegen and J. W. Schrama. 1998. Influence of dietary factors on the pH and ammonia emission of slurry from growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1123-1130.
  18. Mason, V. C. 1984. Metabolism of nitrogen compound in the large gut (Emphasis on recent findings in the sheep and pig). Proc. Nutr. Soc. 43:45.
  19. AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis (15th ed). Association of official analytical chemists. Washington, DC, USA.
  20. Duncan, D. B. 1995. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 11:1.
  21. Eggum, B. O. 1970. Blood urea measurement as a technique for assessing protein quality. Br. J. Nutr. 24:983.
  22. Graham, H., K. Hesselman and P. Aman. 1986. The influence of wheat bran and sugar-beet pulp on the digestibility of dietary components in a cereal-based pig diet. J. Nutr. 116:242-251.
  23. Hahn, J. D., R. R. Biehl and D. H. Baker. 1995. Ideal digestible lysine level for early- and late finishing swine. 1995. J. Anim. Sci. 73:773-784.
  24. Loughmiller, J. A., J. L. Nelssen, R. D. Goodband, M. D. Tokach, E. C. Titgemeyer and I. H. Kim. 1998. Influence of dietary lysine on growth performance and carcass characteristics of late-finishing gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1075-1080. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7641075x
  25. Shi, X. Z. and J. Noblet. 1993. Contribution of the hindgut to digestion of diets in growings and adult sows: effect of diet composition. Livest. Prod. Sci. 34:237-252.
  26. Hines, R. H., J. D. Hancock, C. G. Mills and D. A. Nichols. 1993. Effects of nursery diets on growth of pigs to market weight. In: Swine Day 1993, Kansas State University, USA. pp. 81-87.
  27. Lizardo, R., J. Peiniau and A. Aumaitre. 1997. Inclusion of sugarbeet pulp and change of protein source in the diet of the weaned piglet and their effects on digestive performance and enzymatic activities. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 66:1-14.
  28. Yen, H. T., D. J. A. Cole and D. Lewis. 1986b. Amino acid requirements of growing pigs. 8. the response of the pigs from 50 to 90 kg live weight to dietary ideal protein. J. Anim. Sci. 43:155-165.
  29. Lee, J. H., J. D. Kim. J. H. Kim, J. Jin and In K. Han. 2000. Effect of phase feeding on the growth performance, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1137-1146.
  30. Fuller, M. F. and P. J. Reeds. 1998. Nitrogen cycling in the gut. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 18:385-411.
  31. Lawrence, B. V., O. Adeola and T. R. Cline. 1994. Nitrogen utilization and lean growth performance of 20- to 50-kilogram pigs fed diets balanced for lysine:energy ratio. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2887-2895.
  32. Dritz, S. S., R. D. Goodband, M. D. Tokach and J. L. Nelssen. 1997. Influence of lysine regimen on growth performance and lean percentage of finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75(Suppl. 1):74(Abstr.).
  33. Knudsen, K. E. Bach. 2001. The nutritional significance of 'dietary fibre' analysis. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 90:3-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00193-6
  34. Bae, S. H., Y. G. Kim, J. H. Kim, W. T. Cho, Z. N. Xuan, M. K. Kim and In K. Han. Effect of dietary lysine levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of boar and gilt. 1998. Kor. J. Anim. Nutr. Feed. 22(3):157-164.
  35. Chen, H. -Y., A. J. Lewis, P. S. Miller and J. T. Yen. 1999. The effect of excess protein on growth performance and protein metabolism of finishing barrows and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3238-3247.
  36. Yen, J. T., J. A. Nienaber, D. A. Hill and W. G. Pond. 1989. Oxygen consumption by portal vein-drained organs and by whole animal in conscious growing swine. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 190:393-398.
  37. Thibault, J. -F., M. Lahaye and F. Guillon. 1992. Physico-chemical properties of food plant cell walls. In: Dietary Fibre: A Component of Food: Nutritional Function in Health and Disease (Ed. T. F. Schweizer and C. A. Edwards). Springer, London. pp. 21-39.

Cited by

  1. Effect of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs vol.58, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-016-0119-z