Effects of Combination of Nitrate with ${\beta}$1-4 Galacto-oligosaccharides and Yeast (Candida kefyr) on Methane Emission from Sheep

Sar, C.;Santoso, B.;Gamo, Y.;Kobayashi, T.;Shiozaki, S.;Kimura, K.;Mizukoshi, H.;Arai, I.;Takahashi, J.

  • Received : 2003.05.21
  • Accepted : 2003.10.11
  • Published : 2004.01.01


The objective of the present study was to determine whether ${\beta}$1-4 galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and Candida kefyr combined with nitrate as manipulators could suppress rumen methanogenesis without nitrate poisoning in sheep. Four rumen fistulated wethers were allocated to a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. Nitrate (1.3 g $NaNO_3$ $Kg^{-0.75}$body weight) with and without GOS and Candida kefyr were administered into the rumen through fistula as a single dose 30 min after the morning meal. GOS and Candida kefyr were supplemented by sprinkling onto the feed and through rumen fistula, respectively. The four treatments consisted of saline, nitrate, nitrate plus GOS and nitrate plus GOS plus Candida kefyr. Physiological saline was used as the control treatment. Compared to saline treatment, the administration of nitrate alone resulted in a very marked decrease in rumen methanogenesis and an increase in rumen and plasma nitrite production and blood methaemoglobin formation consequently causing a decline in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and metabolic rate. When compared to nitrate alone, the simultaneous administration of nitrate with GOS decreased nitrite accumulation in rumen and plasma and nitrate-induced methaemoglobin, while retaining low methane production. However, GOS could not fully restore metabolic parameters reduced by nitrate. When compared to the simultaneous administration of nitrate with GOS, the simultaneous administration of nitrate with GOS plus Candida kefyr lowered rumen methanogenesis to a negligible level, but did not decrease rumen and plasma nitrite accumulation as well as blood methaemoglobin formation. Thus, these results suggest that combination of nitrate with GOS may be a potent manipulator to suppress rumen methanogenesis with abating the hazards of nitratenitrite toxicity in ruminants.


Rumen Methanogenesis;Nitrate;${\beta}$1-4 Galacto-oligosaccharide;Candida kefyr;Methaemoglobin


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