DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids-enriched Diet Supplemented with Different Levels of α-Tocopherol on Lipid Metabolism in Laying Tsaiya Ducks

Chen, Tian-Fwu;Hsu, Jenn-Chung

  • Received : 2003.09.15
  • Accepted : 2004.06.12
  • Published : 2004.11.01

Abstract

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs)-enriched diet supplemented with different levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol on the activities of hepatic lipogenic-related enzymes and the contents of liver and plasma lipid fractions in laying Tsaiya ducks. A total of 180 30-wk-old laying Tsaiya ducks, at the beginning of peak production, were allotted into 6 treatments with 3 replicates each. Ducks were fed one of the 6 experimental diets, containing 4% tallow (control), and 4% fish oil supplemented with graded levels of $\alpha$-tocopheryl acetate ($\alpha$-tocopherol) at 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, for 6 wks. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The results indicated that the n-3 PUFAsenriched diet supplemented with different levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol did not affect (p>0.05) egg weight, feed intake, body weight change or liver and abdominal fat weights. Egg production, egg mass and feed efficiency significantly (p<0.05) improved as dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels increased. The activities of hepatic lipogenic-related enzymes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6. 2. 1. 3; ACC), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1. 1. 1. 49; G-6-PDH), ATP-citrate cleavage enzyme (EC 4. 1. 3. 8; CCE), NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.40; NADP-MDH) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) were higher (p<0.05) in birds fed with the tallow diet than in those fed with fish oil diets and increased with increasing dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels. None of the dietary treatments significantly affected the contents of triglyceride and total cholesterol in the liver, or total cholesterol, phospholipid and total lipid in the plasma. However, the contents of phospholipid and total lipid in the liver, and triglyceride in the plasma increased as dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels increased. Increasing dietary $\alpha$-tocopherol levels decreased the non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) content in the plasma and trended to decrease the cholesterol contents in the egg yolk. The lipid metabolism of laying Tsaiya ducks was influenced not only by the dietary fat but also by the supplementation levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol.

Keywords

Tsaiya Duck;n-3 PUFAs;$\alpha$-Tocopherol;Lipid Metabolism

References

  1. Bauernfeind, J. C. 1997. The tocopherol content of food and influencing factors. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 8:337-352. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408397709527226
  2. British Nutrition Foundation (BNF). 1992. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Nutritional and Physiological Significance. The Report of the British Nutrition Foundation’s Task Force, Chapman and Hall, Lodon. p. 221.
  3. Chen, T. F. and J. C. Hsu. 2003. Incorporation of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids into duck egg yolk. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:565-569.
  4. Hahm, T. S., D. L. King and D. B. Min. 1993. Food antioxidants. J. Foods Biotechnol. 2:1-18.
  5. Herold, P. M. and J. E. Kinsella. 1986. Fish oil consumption and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease: a comparison of findings from animal and human feeding trials. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 43:566-589.
  6. Kumar, S., J. A. Dorsey, R. A. Muesing and J. W. Porter. 1970. Comparative studies of the pigeon liver fatty acid synthetase complex and its subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 245:4732-4744.
  7. Lin, C. F., J. I. Gray, A. Asghar, D. J. Buckley, A. M. Booren and C. J. Flegal. 1989. Effcet of dietary oils and $\alpha$-tocopherol supplementation on lipid composition and stability of broiler meat. J. Food Sci. 54:1457-1461.
  8. O'choa, S. 1955. Malic enzyme. In: Method enzymology. Vol. 1:739. Academic Press. Inc., New York.
  9. Xia, Z. G., Y. M. Guo, S. Y. Chen and J. M. Yuan. 2003. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on antibody production and lymphocyte proliferation of laying hens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1320-1325.
  10. Tanaka, K., S. Ohtani and K. Shigeno. 1983. Effect of increasing dietary energy on hepatic lipogenesis in growing chicks. I: increasing energy by carbohydrate supplementation. Poult. Sci. 62:445-451.
  11. Chen, T. F. 1992. Effects of dietary energy contents on hepatic lipogenic-related enzyme activities of White Roman geese. Master thesis, National Chung-Hsing University pp. 36-39. (in Chinese).
  12. Hargis, P. S. 1988. Modifying egg yolk cholesterol - a review. World's Poult. Sci. J. 44:17-29. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19880002
  13. Bartov, I., Y. Wiseman and E. Wax. 1991. Effects of high concentration of dietary vitamin E and ethoxyquin on the performance of laying hens. Br. Poult. Sci. 32:525-534.
  14. Eder, K. and M. Kirchgessner. 1998. The effect of dietary vitamin E supply and a moderately oxidized oil on activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in rats. Lipids 33:277-283.
  15. Thompson, J. N. and G. Hatina. 1979. Determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in foods and tissues by high performance liquid chromatography. J. Liquid Chromatography 2:327-344.
  16. Illingworth, D. R. and D. Ullmann. 1990. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Ch. 2. In omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease (Ed. R. S. Lees and M. Karel), p. 39. Marces Dekker, Inc., New York.
  17. Yeh, Y. Y. and G. A. Leveille. 1971. Studies on the relation-ship between lipogenesis and the level of coenzyme A derivatives, lactate and pyruvate in chick liver. J. Nutr. 101:911-918.
  18. Iritani, N. 1992. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of lipogenic-enzyme gene expression in rat liver. Eur. J. Biochem. 205:433-442.
  19. Mikkelsen, L., H. S. Henson, N. Grunnet and J. Dich. 1993. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes by exogenous polyunsaturated faty acids is caused by lipid peroxidation. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1166:99-104.
  20. Hu, M. L., E. N. Franke , B. E. Leibovitz and A. L. Tappel. 1989. Effect of dietary lipids and vitamin E on in vitro lipid peroxidation in rat liver and kidney homogenenates. J. Nutr. 119:1574-1582.
  21. Qi, G. H. and J. S. Sim. 1998. Natural tocopherol Enrichment and its effect in n-3 fatty acid modified chicken eggs. J. Agric. Food Chen. 46:1920-1926.
  22. Takeda, Y., F. Sazuki and H. Inoue. 1963. Citrate cleavage enzyme, In; Method enzymology. Vol. 5:154. Academic Press. Inc. New York.
  23. Lohr, G. H. and H. D. Waller. 1974. Method of enzymatic analysis. Academic Press. New York and London, Vol. 2:636.
  24. Clarke, S. D., M. K. Armstrong and D. B. Jump. 1990. Dietary polyunsaturated fats uniquely suppress rat liver fatty acid synthetase and $S_{14}$ mRNA content. J. Nutr. 120:225-231.
  25. Bragdon, J. H. 1960. Method for determination of total serum lipids. In: Lipids and the steroid hormone in clinical medicine (Ed. F. W. Sundrman and F. W. Sunderman) pp. 9-15, Lippincott, Philadelphia.
  26. Clarke, S. D. and D. B. Jump. 1993. Regulation of gene transcription by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prog. Lipid Res. 32:139-149.
  27. An, B. K., K. Tanaka and S. Ohtani. 1995. Effects of various n- 3/n-6 fatty acid ratios in diet on lipid metabolism in growing chicks. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Jpn) 66:830-840.
  28. Hargis, P. S., M. E. Van Elswyk and B. M. Hargis. 1991. Dietary modification of yolk lipid with menhaden oil. Poult. Sci. 70:874-883.
  29. Leskanich, C. O. and R. C. Noble. 1997. Manipulation of the n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of avian eggs and meat. World's Poult. Sci. J. 53:155-183.
  30. Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr and R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193:265-275.
  31. Oh, S. Y., C. H. Lin, J. Ryue and D. E. Bell. 1994. Eggs enriched with omega-3 fatty acids as a wholesome food. J. Applied Nutr. 46:14-25.
  32. Meluzzi, A., F. Sirri, G. Manfreda, N. Tallarico and A. Franchini. 2000. Effects of dietary vitamin E on the quality of table eggs enriched with n-3 long-chain fatty acids. Poult. Sci. 79:539-545.
  33. Dakshinamurrti, K. and P. R. Desjardins. 1969. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from rat adipose tissue. Biochem. Biothys. Acta. 176:22-29.
  34. Hargis, P. S. and M. E. Van Elswyk. 1993. Manipulating the fatty acid composition of poultry meat and eggs for the health conscious consumer. World's Poult. Sci. J. 49:251-264.
  35. Sklan, D. 1983. Effect of high vitamin A or tocopherol intake on hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal absorption and secretion of lipids and bile acids in the chick. Br. J. Nutr. 50:409-416.
  36. AOAC. 1984. Official Methods of Analysis, 14th ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
  37. Dyer-Hurdon, J. N. and I. A. Nnanna. 1993. Cholesterol content and functionality of plasma and granules fractionated from egg yolk. J. Food Sci. 58:1277-1281. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb06165.x
  38. Fritche, K. L. and P. V. Johnston. 1988. Rapid autoxidation of fish oil in diets without added antioxidants. J. Nutr. 118:421-426.
  39. Kormhout, D., E. B. Bosschieter and C. D. L. Coulander. 1985. Inverse relationship between fish consumption and 20 year mortality from coronary heart disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 312:1205-1209.
  40. Bollengier-Lee, M. A. Mitchell, D. B. Utomo, P. E. V. Williams and C. C. Whitehead. 1998. Influence of high dietary vitamin E supplementation on egg production and plasma characteristics in hens subjected to heat stress. Br. Poult. Sci. 39:106-112.
  41. Burton, G. H. and K. U. Ingold. 1981. Autoxidation of biological molecules. 1. The antioxidant activity of vitamin E and related chain reaction of unsaturated lipids. Food Chem. 9:21-25.
  42. Mutia, R. and S. Uchida. 1999. Effects of feeding winged bean oil on cholesterol and lipid contents in egg and liver, and fatty acid composition of egg in Japanese Quail. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12:376-380.
  43. Hsu, J. C., K. Tanaka, S. Ohtani and C. M. Collado. 1988. Effects of pantethine supplementation to diets on hepatic lipogenesis of laying hens exposed to a high environmental temperature. Jpn. J. Zootech. Sci. 59:1059-1072.
  44. Lien, T. F., C. P. Wu and J. J. Lu. 2003. Effects of cod liver oil and chromium Picollinate Supplements on the serum traits, egg yolk fatty acids and cholesterol contents in laying hens. Asian Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1177-1181.
  45. SAS. 1988. User,s Guide: Statistics, SAS Inst., Inc., Carry, NC.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Science Council