Mutagenicity Studies of the Herbicide-resistance Phosphinotricin Acetyltransferase (PAT)

제초제저항성단백질 Phosphinotricin Acetyltransferase (PAT)의 유전독성시험

  • 정미혜 (농업과학기술원 유해물질과) ;
  • 유아선 (농업과학기술원 유해물질과) ;
  • 이제봉 (농업과학기술원 농약평가과) ;
  • 신진섭 (농업과학기술원 농약평가과) ;
  • 김진화 (농업과학기술원 유해물질과) ;
  • 한증술 (원예연구소 원예생명공학과)
  • Published : 2004.03.30

Abstract

To evaluate mutagenicity of Phosphinotricin Acetyltransferase(PAT) which is expressed by the glufosinate-resistance gene pat, in vitro reverse mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium, chromosome aberration test using chinese hamster lung(CHL) cells and in vivo micronucleus test of mice were performed. In the reverse mutation, the PAT did not induce mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537 with and without metabolic activation at $5000{\mu}g/plate$. In the chromosome aberration test, the results showed no incidence of increased structural and numerical chromosome aberrations at any doses tested(100, 10, $1{\mu}g/mL$). In micronucleus test, the ratio of micronuclei was measured in polychromatic erythrocytes of bone marrow of male ICR mice intraperitoneally administrated with PAT(1250, 625, and 313 mg/kg), the results showed no incidence of increased micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE). These results indicate that PAT might not have mutagenic potential in vitro and vivo systems.

References

  1. EPA (2000) FIFRA Scientific Advisory Meeting(SAP) on Guidelines for Mammalian toxicity assessments for protein plant-pesticides. Enviromnental protection agency. U.S.A.
  2. Hayashi, M., S. Hashmoto, Y. Saksmoto, S. Hamada, T. Sofuni and I. Yosuimura (1994) Statical analysis of data in mutagenicity assays : Rodent micronucleus assays, Environ. Health Prespect. 102 Suppl.(1):49-5
  3. Ishdate, M. Jr. and S. Odashima (1977) Chromosome tests with 134 compounds on chinese hamster cells in vitro a screening for chemical carcinogens. Mutat. Res. 48:337-354
  4. Kearns, P. and P. Mayers (1999) Substantial equivalence is a useful tool, Nature 401, 640
  5. Maron, D. H and B. N. Ames (1983) Revised methods for the salmonella mutagenicity test. Mutation Res. 113:173-215
  6. OECD (1993b) 'OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals, Documents 471, genetic toxicolgy: Salmonella ηphimuriun , Reverse Mutaion assay'. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France
  7. Spencer, T. M., W. J. Gordon-Kanlffi, R. J. Daines, W. G. Start and P. G. Lemaux (1990) Bialaphos selection of stable transformants from maize cell culture. Theor. Appl. Genet. 79:625-631
  8. 농촌진흥청 (1999) 유전자전환작물의 안전관리 방안에 관한 세미나. pp.3-10 농촌진흥청. 농업과학기술원
  9. Parveez, G. K. A., M. M. Masri, A. Zainal, N. A. Majid, A. M. M. Yunus, H. H. Fadiah, O. Rasid and S. C. Cheah(2000) Transgenic oil palm Production and projection. Biochemical Society Trans. 28:969-972
  10. FAO (1996) Biotechnology and food safety, report of a joint FAO/WHO consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition paper 61, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the united nations, Rome
  11. OECD (1993a) Safty evaluation of foods derived through modern biotechnology: concepts and principles. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France
  12. Galloway, M. S., T. Sofuni, M. D. Shelby, X. Thlagar, V. Kumaroo, P. Kaur, B. Anderson, E. Zeiger, and M. Jr. Ishdate(1997) Multulaboratory comparison of in vitro tests for chromosome aberration in CHO and CHL cells tested under the same protocols, Environ. Mutagens & Carcinogens 29(2):198-207
  13. Murphy, D. J. (1999) Manipultion of plant oil composition for the production of valuable chemicals. Progress, problems, and prospects. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 464:21-35
  14. De Block, M., J. Botterman, M. Vandewiele, J. Dockx, C. Thoen, V. Gossele, V. Rao, N. Movva, C. Thompson and M. Van Montage (1987) Engineering herbicide resistance in plants by expression of a detoxifying enzyme. EMBO J. 6:2513-2518
  15. Cao, J., X. Duran, D. McElory and R. Wu (1992) Regeneration of herbicide resistant transgenic rice plants following microprojectile-mediated transformation of suspension culture cells. Plant Cell Rep. 11 :586-591
  16. Salamore, M. (1980) Towards an improved micro-nucleus test: Studies on 3 model agent, mitomycin C, cyclophosphamide and dimethylbenzanthracene. Mutat. Res. 74:347-356
  17. Schimid, W. (1975) The micronucleus test. Mutat. Res. 31:9-15
  18. Hayes, A. W. (1989) Genetic toxicology in principle and methods of toxicology. pp.407-435, Raven press, USA
  19. Strauch, E., W. Wohlleben and A. Puhler (1988) Cloning of a phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase gene from Streptomyces viridochromogene Tu494 and its expression in Streptomyces lividans and Escherichia coli. Gene 63:65-74 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(88)90546-X
  20. Tompson, C. J., N. R. Movva, R. Tizard, R. Crameri, J. E. Davies, M. Lauwereys and J. Botterman (1987) Characterization of the herbicide- resistance gene bar from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. EMBO J. 6:2519-2523
  21. Hayashi, M., I. Yoshmura, T. Sofuni and M. Jr. Ishdate (1989) A procedure for data analysis of the rodent micronucleus test involving a historical control. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 13:347- 356
  22. Macgregor, J. T., J. A. Heddle, M. Rite, B. H. Margolin, C. Ramel, M. F. Salamone, R. R. Tice and D. Wild (1987) Guidelines for the conduct of micronucleus assays in mammalian bone marrow erythrocyte, Mutation Res. 198:103-112
  23. Millstone, E., E. Brummer, and S. Mayer(1999) Beyoud 'Substantial equivalence'. Nature 401, 525-526
  24. Novak, W. K. and A. G. Haslberger (2000) Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods, Food and Chemical Toxicology 38:473-483
  25. Jail, R.K., M. Coffey, K. Lai, A.Kumur and S.L. MacKenzie(2000) Enhancement of seed oil content by expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase genes. Biochemical Society Trans. 28:958-961
  26. Padgette, S. R., N. B. Taylor, D .L. Nida, M. R. Bailey, J. Macdonald, L. R. Holden and R. L. Fuchs (1996) The composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean seeds is equivalent to that of conventional soybeans. J. Nutr.126(3):702-716
  27. De Block, M., D. De Brouwer and P. Tenning (1989) Transformation of Bra ssicanapus and Brassica oleracea using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the expression of the bar and neo genes in the transgenic plants. Plant Physiol. 91:694-701
  28. 권창희, 권병준, 강영배, 윤용덕 (1993) 유전자 조작 Vector 이용 동물용 백신 개발 전망. 대한수의사회지 29(12):728-734
  29. OECD (1993c): 'OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals, Documents 473, genetic toxicolgy: in vitro mammalian cytogenetic test'. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France