Effects of Phenolic Compounds of Persimmon Leaves on Antioxidative System and Miscellaneous Enzyme Activities Related to Liver Function in Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity of Rats

감잎의 Phenolic Compounds가 에탄올을 투여한 흰쥐의 항산화계 및 기타 효소활성에 미치는 영향

  • 정창주 (조선대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 윤준식 (조선대학교 유전자과학과) ;
  • 이명렬 (조선대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2004.03.01

Abstract

To investigate antioxidative effects of phenolic compounds separated from persimmon leaves(PL)(Diospyros kaki Thunb.) on the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat, Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100-150 g were divided into 5 groups; control group(CON), PL(70 mg/kg) administered group(PEl), ethanol(5 mL/kg, 25%) administered group(ETH), PL(70 mg/kg) and ethanol administered group (PE2), and PL(140 mg/kg) and ethanol administered group(PE3), respectively. The antioxidative activity of persimmon leaves decreased in order of ethylacetate>interphase materials>n-butanol>chloroform>n-hexane>water fraction. The growth rate and feed efficiency ratio decreased by ethanol were gradually increased to the adjacent level of CON by administering PL. The serum activities of ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lactic acid dehydrogenase elevated by ethanol were decreased significantly. It was also observed that the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px of rat liver increased by ethanol were markedly decreased in PL administered group as compared to ETH. The GSH content of liver was decreased by ethanol, but that was increased in PE1 and PE2 compared with ETH as a dose-dependant manner. These results suggested that phenolic compounds separated from persimmon leaves have a possible protective and relievable effect on the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

References

  1. 김진구 . 김광수 (1982) 감엽성분에 관한 연구. 상주농업전문대학 논문집, 21, 95-97
  2. Joung, S.Y. Lee, S.J. Sung, N.J. Jo, J.S. and Kang, S.K. (1995) The chemical composition of persimmon (Diospyros kaki, Thumb) leaf tea. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr., 24, 720-726
  3. Glatthaar, B.E. Homig, D.H. and Fladmoe, A.V. (1979) Inhibition of chemical carcinogen induced neoplasia by coumanns and a-angelicalactone. Cancer Res., 37, 1051-1063
  4. Song, H.S. Lee, H.K Jang, H.D. Kim, J.I. Park, O.J. Lee, M.S. and Kang, M.H. (1996) Antimutagenic effects of persimmion leaf tea extracts in Sister Chromated Exchange(SCE) Assay System. J. Koraen Soc. Food Nutr., 25, 232-241
  5. Buege, J. A. and Aust, S.D. (1969) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. In 'Methods in enzymoogy' Packer, L. (ed.), Academic Press, New York, 27, 502-511
  6. Tietze, F. (1969) Enzymatic methods for quantitative determination of nanogram amounts of total and oxidized glutathione. Anal. Biochem., 27, 502-513 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(69)90064-5
  7. Lowry, C.H. Rsenbrough, N.J. Farr, A.L. and Randall, R. J. (1951) Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193, 265-275
  8. Okamura, H. Mimura, A. Yakou, Y. Niwano, M. and Takahama, Y. (1993) Antioxidant activity of tannins and flavonoids in Eucalyptus rostrata. Phytochemistry, 33, 557-563 https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(93)85448-Z
  9. Lieber, C.S. (1986) The influence of alcohol on nutritional status. Nutr. Rev., 46, 24-35 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.1988.tb05350.x
  10. Zimmerman, H.J. (1981) Chemical hepatic injury and its detection, in toxicology of the liver, Plaa, G. L. and Hewitt, W. R., eds., Raven press, 22, p.1-10
  11. McCord, J.M. and Fridovich, I. (1969) Superoxide dismutase an enzymatic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprin), J. Biol. Chem., 244, 6049-6059
  12. Lieber, C.S. (1980) Increased loss and decreased synthesis of hepatic glutathione after acute alcohol administration. Phamacol. Biochem. Behav., 13, 17-29 https://doi.org/10.1016/0091-3057(80)90113-6
  13. Fridovich, I. (1986) Bilogical effects of the superoxide radical, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 247, 1-45 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(86)90526-6
  14. Sohn, T.H. Choi, J.U Cho, R.K. and Soong, H.M. (1978) Studies on the Utilization of Persimmons (part 5). Investigation of the Optimum Thickness of Film Bag for Polyethylene Film Storage of Astringent Variety. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 10, 73-77
  15. Crapo, C.H. McCord, J.M and Fridovich, I. (1978) Preparation and assay of superoxide dismutase, Methods enzymol. ed. Fleischer S and Packer L., Academic press, New York, 53, p.382-422
  16. Robbins, S.L. and Kumar, V,K. (1987) Basic pathology, Saunders, New York, p.14-21
  17. Choi, U. Shin, D.H. Chang, Y.S. and Shin, J.I. (1992) Screening of Natural Antioxidant from Plant and Their Antioxidative Effect. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 24, 142-148
  18. Fujji, M. Ohmachi, T. Sagarni, I. and Watanabe, M. (1985) Liver microsomal drug metabolism in ethanol treated hamsters. Biochem. Pharmacol., 34, 3881-3890 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(85)90438-1
  19. Stocker, R. and Frei, B. (1991) Endogenous antioxidant defences in human blood plasma. In oxidative stress, Sies, H. ed. Academic Press, New York, 60, p.213-224
  20. Park, W.K. Yoo, Y.H. and Hyun, J.S. (1975) Study on the manufacture jam with korean persimmon. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr., 4, 25-29
  21. Bate-Smith, E.C. (1975) Phytochemistry of proanthocyannidins. Phytochemistry, 14, 1107-1118 https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(75)85197-1
  22. Aykac, G. Usnal, M. Yalcin, S. Kocak-Toker,N. Sivas, A. and Oh, H. (1985) The effects of chronic ethanol ingestion on hepatic lipid peroxide, glutathione peroxide, and glutathione transferase in rats. Toxico., 36, 73-77
  23. Choi, C.H. (1990) The Aroma Components of Duchung Tea and Persimmon Leaf Tea. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 22, 405-411
  24. Fridovich, I. (1989) Superoxide dismutases, J. Biol. Chem., 264, 7761-7770
  25. Choi, S.W. Kang, W.W. Chung, S.K. and Cheon, S.H. (1996) Antioxidative activity of flavonoids in persimmon leave. Foods and Biotechnology, 5, 119-127
  26. Kameda, K. Takaku, T. Okuda, H. and Kimura, Y. (1987) Inhibitory effects of various flavonoids isolated from leaves of persimmon on angiotensin-coverting enzyme activity. J. Natl. Products, 50, 680-692 https://doi.org/10.1021/np50052a017
  27. Recknagel, R.O. Glende, E.A, and Hruszkewyez, A.M. (1977) Chemical mechanisms in carbon tetrachloride toxicity. in 'Free radicals in biology' Pryor, W. A. (ed.), Academic Press, New York, p.91-110
  28. Park, J.O. and Kim, H.J. (1976) Studies on Ascorbic Acid contents in Persinunon leaves tea by different cooking methods. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 17, 31-61
  29. Girotti, A.W. Thomas, J.P. and Jordan, J.E. (1985) Inhibitory effect of Zinc( II) on free radical lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes. J. Free Rad. Bio. Med., 1, 395-404 https://doi.org/10.1016/0748-5514(85)90152-7
  30. Hong, J.H. Lee, G.M. and Hur. S.H. (1996) Production of vinegar using deteriorated deastringent persimmons during low temperature storage. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr., 25, 123-128
  31. 성종환 (1986) 감시의 자연탈삽현상 및 탄닌물질의 문포. 박사학위논문, 경북대학교
  32. Joslyn, M.A. (1970) Methods in food analysis. Academic Press, New York, p.701
  33. Su, J.D. Osawa, T. Kawakishi, S. and Namiki, M. (1988) Tannin antioxidants from Osbeckia chinensis. Phytochemistry, 27, 1315-1322 https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(88)80184-5
  34. Jones,D. P. Eklow, L. Thor, H. and Orrenius, S. (1981) Metabolism of hydrogen peroxide in islated hepatocytes : relative contributions of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in decomposition of endogenously generated $H_2O_2.$ Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 210, 505-513 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(81)90215-0
  35. Aebi, H. (1974) Catalase, Methods of enzymatic analysis, Bergmeyer HU, Bergmeyer, J and Grabi, M., eds. 3rd ed., Verlag. chemie., 2, p.673-688
  36. Uchida, S. Edamatsu, R. Hiramatsu, M. Mori, A Nonaka, G. Nishioka, I. Niwa, M. and Ozaki, M. (1987) Condensed tannins scavenge active oxygen free radicals. Med. Sci. Res., 15, 831-841
  37. Park, Y.J. Kang, M.H. Kim, J.I. Park, O.J. Lee, M.S. and Jang, H. (1995) Changes of viarnin C and superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity of persinunon leaf tea by processing method and extraction condition. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 27, 281-285
  38. Yoshikawa, T. and Kondo, M. (1989) Free radical lipid peroxidation and vitamin E in liver injury. In 'Handbook of free radical and antioxidants in biomedicine' Jaine, M., Alexander, T. and Qintanihala, H.(eds), Weber, CRC Press., 2, p.l67-178
  39. Vina, J. Estrella, J.M. Guerro, C. and Romero, F.J. (1980) Effects of ethanol on glutathione concenturation in islated hepatocytes. Biochem. J., 188, 549-558 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj1880549
  40. Videlia, L.A. Femanded, V, Valenzuela, A. and Ugarte, G. (1980) The effects of chronic alcohol on glutathione in islated hepatocytes. Biochem. J., 188, 549-556 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj1880549
  41. 차원섭 . 김광수 (1984) 시업차 제조방법이 제품의 품질에 미치는 영향. 상주농업전문대학 논문집, 23, 109-111
  42. Flohe, L. Wolfgng, A. and Gunzler, W.A. (1984) Assay of glutathine peroxidase. In Methods in enzymatic analysis. Packer. L. eds. Academic Press, Inc., New York, p.l14-124
  43. Kim, B.G. Rhew, Y.H. Choe, B.S. Chung, H.Y Park, K.Y. and Rhee, S.H. (1993) Effect of selected persimmon leaf components aganist Sarcoma 180 induced tumor in mice. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr., 22, 307-315
  44. Moon, S.H. Kim, J.O. Rhee, S.H. Park, K.Y. Kim, K.H. and Rhew, T.H. (1993) Antimutagenic effects and compounds identified from hexane fraction of persimmon leaves. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr., 22, 307-318
  45. Shin, S.R. Moon, K.D. Lee, K.H. and Kim, KS. (1991) Change in the enzyme activities pectines and structure of persimmon fruit during softening., J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr., 22, 611-616
  46. Lee, T.B. (1982) Illustrated Flora of Korea. Hayngmunsa, Seoul., 612
  47. Hong, Y.S. Ham, Y.A. and Sung, N.E. (1984) The effects of vitamin A and E on lipid peroxidation administered rat liver microsomes. Ewha Med., 7, 3-9 https://doi.org/10.12771/emj.1984.7.1.3
  48. Park, W.K. and Yoo, Y.H. (1976) Effect of gas concentration during the storage of persimmon. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr., 5, 11-17
  49. Blois, M.S. (1958) Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature, 181, 1199-1206 https://doi.org/10.1038/1811199a0
  50. Lieber, C.S. (1980) Interaction of ethanol witr drug, hepatotoxic agent, carcinogen and vitamins. Alcoholism, 25, 157-164
  51. Okonogi, T. Hattori, Z. Ogiso, A. and Mitsui, S. (1970) Detoxification by persimmon tannin of snake venoms and bacterial toxins. Toxico., 17, 524-535
  52. Fridovich, I. (1975) Superoxide dismutase, Annu. Rev. Biochem., 44, 147-151 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi.44.070175.001051
  53. Krenitsky, T.A. (1973)Xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase in purine and purine analogue metabolism. Exp. Med. Biol. p.151-169
  54. Lee, S.J. (1983) lllustrated Botanical List, Komunsa, Seoul, p.1016
  55. Chung, S.H. Moon, K.D. Kim, J.K and Seong, J.H. (1994) Change of chemical components in persimmon leaves during growth for processing persimmon leaves tea. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 26, 141-146
  56. Lieber, C.S, (1994) Alcohol and the liver. Gastro., 106, 1085-1097 https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(94)90772-2
  57. Smuckler, E.A. and Koplitz, M. (1969) The effects of carbon tetrachloride and ethione on RNA synthesis in vivo and in isolated rat liver nuclei. Arch. Biochem. Biophs., 132, 62-71 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(69)90338-5
  58. Plaa, G.L. and Wistschin, H. (1976) Chemicals, drugs and lipid peroxidations. Am.. Rev. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 16, 125-131
  59. Lieber, C.S. and DeCarli, L.M. (1970) Hepartic microsomal ethanol oxidizing system : In vitro characteristics and adaptive properties in vivo. J. Biol. Chem.,. 245, 2505-2516
  60. Kirigaya, N. Kato, H. and Fujimarki, M. (1971) Studies on antioxidant activity of non-enxymatic browning reactions (lll). Fractionation of browning reaction solution between ammonoa and D-glucose and antioxidant activity of the resulting fractions. J. Agr. Chem. Soc. (Japan), 45, 292-301
  61. Downry, J.M. Miura, Y. Eddy, L.J. Chambers, D.E., Mellen, T. Hearse, DJ. and Yellon, D.M. (1987) Xanthine oxidase is not a source of free radicals in the ischemic rabbit heart. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol., 19 ,1053-1067 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2828(87)80350-4
  62. Lieber, C.S. and DeCarli, L.M. (1986) The feeding of ethanol in liquid diet. Alcoholim : Clin. Exp. Res., 10, 550-560 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1986.tb05140.x
  63. Fred, J. Yost, J. and Fridovich, I. (1976) Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in oxygen damage. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 175, 514-519 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(76)90539-7
  64. Dolphin, D. Forman, A. Berg, D.C. Fajce, J. and Felton, R, H. (1971) Compounds I of catalase and horeradish peroxidase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 68, 614-623 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.68.3.614