Cross-cultural differences in Korean and American children′s behavior attributions

한국 아동과 미국 아동의 행동귀인에서의 문화차 연구

  • Young-Joo Song (Dept. of Child Studies, Catholic University of Daegu)
  • Published : 2004.01.01

Abstract

본 연구는 아동의 일상 심리학이 그들의 문화에 따라 다르게 나타나는지를 알아보고자 한 것이다. 이러한 발달적 보편성의 문제를 해결하기 위해, 우선 한국 아동과 미국 아동의 타인 행동에 대한 설명을 비교하였다. 또한 서로 다른 문화를 반영할 수 있는 분석 틀을 고안하여. 이러한 서로 다른 분석 틀에 따라 두 나라 아동의 행동설명이 어떻게 다르게 나타나는지를 비교하였다. 본 연구에서는 미국식 범주인 '내적-외적' 법주와 한국식 범주인 '개인-관계-상황' 범주를 사용하였다. 연구결과. 두 나라의 아동은 타인의 행동설명에서 차이를 보여주었다. 미국 아동은 한국 아동에 비해 심리 '내적' 요인과 '개인적' 요인을 더 많이 사용하였으며. 한국 아동은 타인의 '상황적' 조건을 더 많이 고려하여 행동을 설명하였다. 그러나 두 문화권의 아동은 행동설명 과제에서 모두 '내적' 요인과 '개인적' 요인을 다른 요인보다 더 많이 선호하였으며. 오직 '상황적' 요인의 고려에서만 발달적 차이를 나타내는 공통점을 보여주었다.

References

  1. Al-Zahrani, S. S. A., & Kaplowitz, S. A. (1993). Attrubutional biases in individualistic and collectivistic cultures: a comparison of Americans with Saudis. Social Psychology Quarterly, 56(3), 223-244 https://doi.org/10.2307/2786780
  2. Aloise, P. A. (1993). Trait confirmation and disconfirmation: The development of attribution biases. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 55, 177-193 https://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1993.1010
  3. Avis, J. & Harris, P. L. (1991). Belief-desire reasoning among Baka children: Evidence for a universal conception of mind. Child Development, 62, 460-467 https://doi.org/10.2307/1131123
  4. Barenboim, C. (1981). The development of person perception in childhood and adolescence: From behavioral comparisons to psychological cunstructs to psychological comparicons. Child Development, 52, 129-144 https://doi.org/10.2307/1129222
  5. Bond, M. H., & Cheung, T. (1983). College students' spontaneous self-concept. The effect of culture among respondents in Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 14, 153-171 https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002183014002002
  6. Cha, J. K. & Nam, K. D. (1985). A test of Kelly's cube theory of attribution: A cross-cultural replication of McCarthur's stuhdy. Korean Social Science Journal, 12, 151-180
  7. Choi, S.C. (2000). Korean Psychology. Seoul: Chungang University Press
  8. Choi, S.C. & Choi, S. H. (1990). We-ness: A korean discourse of collectivism. International Conference on Individualism and Collectivism, Seoul, Korea
  9. Choi, I. & Markus, H. R. (1998). Implicit theories and causal attrbution East and West. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan
  10. Choi, I., Nisbett, R & Norenzayan, A. (1999). Causal attribution across cultures: Variation and universality. Psychological Bulletin, 125(1), 47-63 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.1.47
  11. Chung, Y. E. (1990). Void and non-conscious processing. In Korean Psychological Association(Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Individualism and Collectivism : Psychocultural perspectives from East and West. Seoul: Korean Psychological Association
  12. Cousins, S. D. (1989). Culture and self-perception in Japan and the United States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychlogy, 56, 124-131 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.1.124
  13. Dweck, C. S., Hong, Y. Y., & Chiu, C. Y. (1993). Implicit theories: Individual differences in the likelihood and meaning of dispositional inference. Personality and Psychlogical Bulletin, 19, 644-656 https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167293195015
  14. Flavell, J. H., Miller, P. H., & Miller, S. A, (1993). Cognitive Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
  15. Fiske, A. P. (1990). Making up society: The four elementary relational structures. New York: Free Press
  16. Fiske, A., Kitayama, S., Markus, H., & Nisbett, R. (1998). The cultural matrix of social psychology. In D. T. Gilbert & F. S. T. (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology(Vol. 2, pp. 915-981). Boston, MA, USA: Mcgraw-Hill
  17. Greenfield, P . M. (1994). Independence and interdependence as development scripts: implications for theory, research, and practice. In Greenfield, P. M. , & Locking, R. R. (Eds.), Cross-cultural roots of minority child development. HiIIsdale, NJ: LEA
  18. Gong, S. & Han, G. (1996). Characteristics of person perception among Korean people: An empirical investigation from a cross-cultural perspective. International Journal of Korean Studies, 1, 89-104
  19. Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley
  20. Kashima, Y. (1990). Substantive and relational model of individualism and collectivism. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Individualism and Collectivism, Seoul, Korea
  21. Kelly, H. H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska symposium motivation(Vol. 15). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press
  22. Kim, J. E. (1987). The thoughts and behaviors of Koreans. Seoul: Ewha Womans University Press
  23. Kim, U. & Choi, S. H. (1994). Individualism, collectivism, and child development: A Korean perspective. In P. Greenfield & R. Cocking(Eds.), Cross-cultural roots of minority child development. Hillsdale, NJ:LEA
  24. Kruglanski, A. W. (1975). The endogenous-exogenous partition in attribution theory. Psychological Review, 82, 387-406 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.82.6.387
  25. Lieber, E., Yang, K., & Lin, Y. (2000). An external orientation to the study of causal beliefs: Application to Chinese populations and comparative research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(2), 160-186 https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022100031002002
  26. Lillard, A. S. (1998). Ethnopsychologies: Cultural variations in theory of mind. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 3-33 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.123.1.3
  27. Lillard, A. S., Skibbe, L.,Zeljo, A., & Harlan, D. (2003). Developing cultural schema: Children's explanations for behavior in rural and urban Taiwan and the Unitied Ststes. Unpublished manuscript
  28. Malle, B. F. (2001). Attribution processes. In N. J. Smelser P. B. Baltes(Eds.), Intentional encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences(Vol. 14, Developmental, social, personality, and motivational psychology:section editor N.Eisenlberg). Amsterdam: Pergamon/Elsevier
  29. Markus, H. R. & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224-253 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224
  30. Miler, J. G. (1984). Culture and the development of everyday social explanation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 961-978 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.46.5.961
  31. Miller, J. G. (1987). Cultural influences on the development of conceptual differentiation in person description. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5, 309-319 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835X.1987.tb01067.x
  32. Morris, M. W. & Peng, K. (1994). Culture and cause: American and Chinese attributions for social and physical events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 949-971 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.6.949
  33. Norenzayan, A & Nisbett, R. E. (2000). Culture and causal cognition. Current Directions in PsychologicaI Science, 9(4), 132-135 https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00077
  34. Ross, L. & Nisbett, R. E. (1991). The person and the situation: Perspectives of social psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill
  35. Song, M. (1990). Developmental Psychology. Seoul: Hakji Pub
  36. Tardiff, T. & Wellman, H. M. (2000). Acquisition of mental state language in Mandarin-and Cantonese- speaking children. Developmental Psychology, 36(1), 25-43 https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.36.1.25
  37. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism & Collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
  38. Triandis, H. C., McCusker, C., & Hui, C.H. (1990). Multimethod probes of individualism and collectivism.: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1006-1020 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.5.1006
  39. Wellman, H. M. (1990). The child 's theory of mind. Cambridge, MA:The MIT Press
  40. Winter, L. & Uleman, J. S. (1984). When are social judgments made? Evidence for the spontaneousness of trait inferences. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 47, 237-252 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.47.2.237