Non-Invasive Measurement of Shear Rates of Pulsating Pipe Flow Using Echo PIV

에코 PIV를 이용한 맥동 유동에서의 in vitro 전단률 측정 연구

  • 김형범 (경상대학교 기계항공공학부) ;
  • 정인영 (경상대학교 전기전자공학부)
  • Published : 2004.12.01


Although accurate measurement of velocity profiles, multiple velocity vectors, and shear stress in arteries is important, there is still no easy method to obtain such information in vivo. This study shows the utility of combining ultrasound contrast imaging with particle image velocimetry (PIV) for non-invasive measurement of velocity vectors. The steady flow analytical solution and optical PIV measurements (for pulsatile flow) were used for comparison. When compared to the analytical solution, both echo PIV and optical PIV resolved the steady velocity profile well. Error in shear rate as measured by echo PIV (8%) was comparable to the error of optical PIV (6.5%). In pulsatile flow, echo PIV velocity profiles agreed well with optical PIV profiles. Echo PIV followed the general profile of pulsatile shear stress across the artery but underestimated wall shear at certain time points. These studies indicate that echo PIV is a promising technique for the non-invasive measurement of velocity profiles and shear stress.


  1. Friedman, M. H., Deters, O. J., Bargeron, C. B., Hutchins, G. M. and Mark, F. F., 1986, 'Shear-Dependent Thickening of the Human Arterial Intima,' Atherosclerosis, Vol. 60, pp. 161-171
  2. Friedman, M. H. and Deters, O. J., 1987, 'Correlation among Shear Rate Measures in Vascular Flows,' J. Biomech. Eng., Vol. 109, pp. 25-26
  3. Gnass, A., Carallo, C., Irace, C., Spagnulo, V., DeNovara, G., Mattioli, P.L. and Pujia, A., 1996, 'Association Between Intima-Media Thickness and Wall Shear Stress in Common Carotid Arteries in Health Male Subjects,' Circulation, Vol. 94, No. 12, pp. 3257-3262
  4. Lutz, R. J., Cannon, J. N., Bischoff, K. B., Dedrick, R. L., Stiles, R. K. and Fry, D. L., 1977, 'Wall Shear Stress Distribution on a Model Canine Artery During Steady Flow,' Circ. Res., Vol. 41, pp. 391-399
  5. Cheng, P. P., Parker, D. and Taylor, C. A., 2002, 'Quantification of Wall Shear Stress in Large Blood Vessels Using Lagrange Interpolation Functions with Cine Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging,' Ann. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 30, pp. 1020-1032
  6. Oyre, S., Ringgaard, S., Kozerke, S., Paaske, W. P., Scheidegger, M. B., Boesiger, P. and Pedersen, E. M., 1998, 'Quantitation of Circumferential Subpixel Vessel Wall Position and Wall Shear Stress by Multiple Sectored Three-Dimensional Paraboloid Modeling of Velocity Encoded Cine MR,' Magn. Reson, Med., Vol. 40, pp. 645-655
  7. Keynton, R. S., Nemer, R. E., Neifert, Q. Y., Fatemi, R. S. and Rittgers, S. E., 1995, 'Design, Fabrication, and In vitro Evaluation of an In vivo Ultrasonic Doppler Wall Shear Stress Rate Measuring Device,' IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 42, pp. 433-441
  8. Nowak, M., 2002, 'Wall Shear Stress Measurement in a Turbulent Pipe Flow using Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry,' Exp. in Fluids, Vol. 33, pp. 249-255
  9. Taylor C. A., Cheng, C. P., Espinosa, L. A., Tang, B. T., Parker, D. and Herfkens, R. J., 2002, 'In vivo Quantification of Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in the Human Abdominal Aorta During Lower Limb Exercise,' Ann. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 30, pp. 402-408
  10. Kim, H. B., 2004, 'Development of Echo PIV Using Ultrasound Contrast Agent,' KSME J., (in print)
  11. Fatemi, R. S. and Rittgers, S. E., 1994, 'Derivation of Shear Rates from Near-Wall LDA Measurements Under Steady and Pulsatile Flow Conditions,' J. Biomech. Eng., Vol. 116, pp. 361-368
  12. Raffel, M., Willert, C. and Kompenhans, J., 1998, 'Particle Image Velocimetry,' Berlin: Springer-Verlag