Rapid Analytical Method of Volatile- and Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Water and their Monitoring in Water Treatment Plants

물 시료 중 휘발성 및 반휘발성 유기물질들의 빠른 분석법 및 정수처리 단계별 모니터링

  • Shin, Ho-Sang (Department of Environmental Education, Drug Abuse Research Center, Kongju National University) ;
  • Ahn, Hye-Sil (Department of Environmental Science, Kongju National University)
  • 신호상 (공주대학교, 환경교육과, 약물남용연구소) ;
  • 안혜실 (공주대학교, 환경과학과 대학원)
  • Received : 2004.01.15
  • Accepted : 2004.03.11
  • Published : 2004.06.25


A gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) assay method was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of volatile- and semivolatile organic compounds in water. Two hundreds mL of water sample was extracted in a 250 mL separatory funnel with 1 ml of pentane at pH 6.5. Fluorobenzene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene-d4 as internal standards were added to water sample and the solution was mechanically shaken for 5 min and analyzed by GC-MS (selected ion monitoring) without more any concentration or purification steps. The peaks had good chromatographic properties and the extraction of these compounds from water also gave relatively high recoveries with small variations. The range of detection limits of the assay was 0.5-10 ng/L. Turnaround time for up to about 40 samples was one day. This method is simple, convenient, and can be learned easily by relatively inexperienced personnel. This method was used to analyze 15 volatile- and semivolatile organic compounds in water of a Lake, and raw and treated water from three Water Treatment Plants in Korea. As the analytical results, benzene, toluene, xylene, isopropylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, naphthalene and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol were detected at concentrations of up to 0.4, 1.9, 1.3, 0.2, 1.8, 13.0, 1.7 and $1.1{\mu}g/L$, respectively. But chlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, ethylbenzene, n-butylbenzene and dibromochloropropane levels during that period were not significant. The removal effect of the compounds in three Water Treatment Plants was calculated. The compounds studied were generally removed during conventional water treatment, especially during the active carbon filtration.


VOCs;GC-MS;LLE;removal effect


  1. Korth, W.; Bowmer, K.; Ellis, J., Water Res., 25, 319, 1991.
  2. George, J. E.; Payne, G.; Conn, D.; Ward, G., Thoma, J. J., Proc. Water Qual. Technol. Conf., P3C/1-P3C/11, 1997.
  3. Marshili, R. T.; Miller, N.; Kilmer, G. J.; Simmons, R. E.; J. Chromatogr. Sci., 32, 165, 1994.
  4. Graham, D.; Hayes, K., Water, 25, 24, 1998.
  5. Watson, S. B.; Brownlee, B.; Satchwill, T.; Hargesheimer, E. E., Water Res., 34, 2818, 2000.
  6. Brownlee, B. G.; Gammie, L.; Gummer, W. D.; MacInnis, G. A., Wat Sci Tech, 20(8), 91-97, 1988.
  7. Susan B., Water Sci. Tech., 40(6), 251-256, 1999.
  8. Palmentier, J-PF. P.; Taguchi, V. Y.; Jenkins, S. W. D.; Wang, D. T.; Ngo, K-P.; Robinson, D., Water Res., 32, 287, 1998.
  9. Johnston, R., H. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 44, 87-109, 1964.
  10. Krasner, S. W.; Hwang, C. J.; M. J. McGuire, Wat. Sci. Tech., 15, 127, 1983.
  11. Bruchet, A.; Hochereau, C.; Analusis, 25, M32, 1997.
  12. Uchiyama, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Itoh, Y.; Tsuzuki, T., Hokkaidoritsu Eisei Kenkyushoho, 47, 8, 1997.
  13. Takeda, T., Shimadzu Hyoron, 49, 79, 1992.
  14. Johnsen, P. B.; Kuan, J. W., J Chromatogr, 409, 337-34, 1987.