Tritium Distribution in Leachates from Domestic Solid Waste Landfills

생활폐기물 매립장 침출수의 삼중수소 분포

  • 박순달 (한국원자력연구소 원자력화학연구부) ;
  • 김정석 (한국원자력연구소 원자력화학연구부) ;
  • 조기수 (한국원자력연구소 원자력화학연구부) ;
  • 김종구 (한국원자력연구소 원자력화학연구부) ;
  • 김원호 (한국원자력연구소 원자력화학연구부)
  • Received : 2004.02.25
  • Accepted : 2004.03.26
  • Published : 2004.06.25


It is for the purpose of investigating the tritium distribution in the leachates, the raw and treated leachates and the condensates of the methane gas, which have occurred from domestic solid waste landfills. Also it aims to measure the tritium distribution level on the colloid size of the leachates, the raw and treated leachates. It was found that the major inorganic contaminants of the leachates were Na, K, Ca, Mg, $NH{_4}^+$-N and $Cl^-$. The mean tritium level of the raw leachates of the investigated 13 landfill sites for 6 months was 17 ~ 1196 TU. It corresponded to a several scores or hundreds of magnitude higher value than that of the normal environmental sample level except for two landfill sites. Also such a high concentration of the tritium was found in the treated leachates and methane gas condensates as well. Nevertheless it is important to emphasize that the tritium level which was found in this research is about 100 times lower than the tritium limit for the drinking water quality. And most of the tritium existed in the dissolved colloid of the leachate of which the colloid size is below $0.45{\mu}m$. Also, according to the tritium analysis results of the leachates after filtration with $0.45{\mu}m$ membrane filter for some landfills, it is likely that some tritium of the leachate would be distributed in a colloid size over $0.45{\mu}m$. In general the relationship between the tritium and other contaminants in the raw leachate was low, but it was relatively high between the tritium and TOC. However, the tritium content in the leachate had no meaningful relationship with the scale, hydrological characteristics and age of the landfill.


domestic solid waste;sanitary landfill;raw leachate;treated leachate;condensate of methane gas;tritium


Supported by : 과학기술부


  1. V. Gunneries, P. R. Anderson and T. M. Holsen, Environ. Sci. & Technol., 27, 1381(1993).
  2. S. D. Park, K. S. Joe, S. H. Han, T. Y. Eom and H. S. Kim, Environ Technol, 20, 443(1999).
  3. S. D. Park, K. S. Joe, J. P. Lee, J. H. Park, H. S. Kim, J. Kor. Environ Eng, 22(9), 1683(2000).
  4. B. Th. Verhagen, M. J. Butler, M. Levin and A. B. Fourie, 'Tritium in Waste as a Tracer of Landfill Leachate in Surface and Ground Water in South Africa,' IAEA-SM-361/22p, 146, IAEA, Vienna(1999).
  5. B. S. Bowerman and Czagkowski, 'Determination of the Chemical Form of Tritium in Self-luminious Signs,' NUREG/CR-5574(1990).
  6. Y. K. Koh, D. S. Bae, C. S. Kim, G. Y. Kim, J. Kor. Soc. Ground Water Environ., 6(3), 126(1999).
  7. J. V. Sawant and K. Rudran, Bull. Rad. Protec., 18(1 & 2), 179(1995).
  8. Ministry of Science and Techknology, 'Statistics on Radiation Protection in Korea 2003,' 21 ~ 33(2003).
  9. S. D. Park, K. S. Joe, J. P. Lee, J. H. Park and H. S. Kim, J. Kor Environ. Eng., 24(2), 311(2002).
  10. H. Rahimi, N. Rahimi and F. Ashtiani, Nukleonika, 39(4), 129(1994).
  11. S. D. Park, K. S. Joe, S. H. Han and H. S. Kim, Environ. Technol., 20, 419(1999).
  12. 환경부, '2001 전국폐기물발생 및 처리현황,' 4(2002).
  13. D. D. Coleman, C. L. Liu, K. C. Hackley and L. J. Benson, 'Identification of landfill methane using carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis. Proceedings of 6th International Madison Waste Conference, Municipal & Industrial Waste,' Dept. Engin. Profe. Develop., Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, pp 303(1993).
  14. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 'Tritium Analysis in Environmental Samples around Nuclear Power Plants and Nationwide Surveillance of Radionuclides in Smoe Environmental Samples,' KINS/HR-285, Vol 3, 65(2001).
  15. K. Rozanski, R. Gonfiantini and L. Araguas-Araguas, J. Phy. G: Nuc. Part Phy., 17,523(1991).
  16. H. D. Robinson and J. R. Gronow. J. Insti. Water & Environ. Mang., 10(6), 391(1996).
  17. K. C. Hackley, C. L. Liu and D. D. Coleman, Ground Water, 34(5), 827(1996).
  18. C. J. Kim, Y. W. Cho, M. J. Han and C. K. Pak, J. Kor. Asso. Rad. Protec., 17(2), 25(1992).
  19. G. Tchobanoglous, H. Theisen and S. Vigil, 'Integrated solid waste management,' International Editions, 417, McGRAW-HILL Inc., Singapore, 1993.