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Standardization of Manufacturing Method and Lactic Acid Bacteria Growth and CO2 Levels of Nabak Kimchi at Different Fermentation Temperatures

나박김치의 제조 표준화 및 발효온도별 젖산균의 생육과 CO2 생성

  • Kong, Chang-Suk (Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, and Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University) ;
  • Seo, Jung-Ok (Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, and Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University) ;
  • Bak, Soon-Sun (Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, and Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University) ;
  • Rhee, Sook-Hee (Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, and Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University) ;
  • Park, Kun-Young (Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, and Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University)
  • 공창숙 (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 김치연구소) ;
  • 서정옥 (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 김치연구소) ;
  • 박순선 (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 김치연구소) ;
  • 이숙희 (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 김치연구소) ;
  • 박건영 (부산대학교 식품영양학과 및 김치연구소)
  • Published : 2005.06.01

Abstract

Ingredient ratio for making nabak kimchi and the manufacturing method were standardized from the available literatures. Fermentation properties and $CO_2$ production of the nabak kimchi were investigated during the fermentation at $5^{\circ}C,\;10^{\circ}C,\;and\;20^{\circ}C$. Standardized ingredients ratio of nabak kimchi that added 100 mL of water was as follows: 45.0 g baechu cabbage, 26.9 g radish, 1.9 g green onion, 1.0 g red pepper, 1.2 g crushed garlic, 0.9 g crushed ginger, 0.7 g red pepper powder. The standardized manufacturing method of nabak kimchi was as follows: washing ingredients, cutting radish and baechu cabbage $(2.5\times2.5\times0.5\;cm)$, salting for 20 min, washing and draining, pretreatment of ingredients, dissolving red pepper powder in water, blending, mixing, and adding the water to the mixed ingredients. Fermentations at $5^{\circ}C$ for 8 days, at $10^{\circ}C$ for 3 days, and at $20^{\circ}C$ for 1 day led to the acidity levels of $0.21\%,\;0.20\%,\;and\;0.31\%$, respectively. From the relationships between optimally ripened pH and acidity, nabak kimchi showed lower acidity of $0.20\~0.25\%$ with pH $4.2\~4.5.$ Like other kinds of kimchi, the Levels of Leuconostoc sp. were high specially at later stage of fermentation at low temperature $(5^{\circ}C)$. However, the levels of Lactobacillus sp. were low at $5^{\circ}C$. Nabak kimchi produced high levels of $CO_2$ in the initial fermentation period and followed by rapid decrease of $CO_2$ production with the fermentation. From the relationships between pH and $CO_2$ content, the highest $CO_2$ contents were found pH $4.0\~4.4$, 3.8 and 3.4 at $5^{\circ}C,\;10^{\circ}C$, and $20^{\circ}C$, respectively. This fact indicated that fermentation at $5^{\circ}C$ has the highest $CO_2$ content at optimally ripened pH of 4.3 and the fermentation at lower temperature such as $5^{\circ}C$ could extend the eatable time of nabak kimchi.

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