Spreading Processes and Features of School Environmental Education in Korea, the People's Republic of China and Japan

한.중.일 학교 환경교육의 전개와 특색

  • Published : 2005.08.30

Abstract

Korea, China and Japan show distinct features in their school environmental education, which are derived from their own spreading processes. Japanese school environmental education has developed as a result of assimilating of anti-pollution education and nature education, and has a feature that makes much of nature experiences. The introduction of 'Period for Integrated Study' in 2002 seems to begin activating Japanese school environmental education. Chinese school environmental education started in higher education institutions around the middle of 1970's, and has a feature that makes a point of scientific approach, even in primary education schools. The two government ordinances,'National Action Program for Environmental General Knowledge ($1996{\sim}2010$)' and 'Educational Scheme of Environmental Theme Study for Elementary and Secondary School Students' issued in 2003, gradually promote school environmental education in China. It is remarkable that Science and Technology Centers for Youth and also increasing environmental NPOs often support environmental activities in elementary or secondary schools. The most notable feature of Korean school environmental education is that 'Environment' has already offered as a regular elective subject in junior high school, and official 'Environment' textbook has published since early 1990's. Though, the adoption rate of 'Environment' is not yet so high. Each country's peculiar issues are as follows. Japan: (1) Students often lack basic knowledge about environmental important problems. (2) 'Period for Integrated Study' is now threatened with cutting hours by the idea of increasing periods for basic subjects to keep high achievement. China: (1) There are large regional differences and school distinctions in operation of environmental education. (2) Adult environmental education needs to be expanded, because the most part of Chinese have no experience of school environmental education. Korea: (1) The relationship between the administrative division which plans school environmental education and teachers group is not quite well. The adoption rate of 'Environment' in junior high school needs to be improved. The training of many teachers for environmental education instructors may be the most important and effective cooperative action among Korea, China and Japan, and for that purpose we ought to work on making a better handbook for instructors, at first.