DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Protective Effect of Gwakhyangjeonggisan Herbal Acupuncture Solution in Glioblastoma Cells: Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression

Glioblastoma 세포주의 유해산소 손상을 억제하는 곽향정기산 약침액의 효과에 대한 마이크로어레이 연구

  • Published : 2005.12.30

Abstract

Objectives : Neurological disorders have been one of main therapeutic targets of acupuncture. The present study investigated the protective effects of Gwakhyangjeonggisan herbal acupuncture solution (GHAS). Methods : We performed 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in glioblastoma cells, and did microarray analysis with cells exposed to reactive oxigen species (ROS) of hydrogen peroxide by 8.0 k Human cDNA, with cut-off level of 2-fold changes in gene expression. Results : MTT assay showed protective effect of GHAS on the glioblastoma cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide. When glioblastoma cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide, 24 genes were downregulated. When the cells were pretreated with GHAS before exposure to hydrogen peroxide, 46 genes were downregulated. Many of the genes downregulated by hydrogen peroxide stimulation were decreased in the amount of downregulation or reversed to upregulation. Conclusions : The gene expression changes observed in the present study are supposed to be related to the protective molecular mechanism of GHAS in the glioblastoma cells exposed to ROS stress.

Keywords

Gwakhyangjeonggisan herbal acupuncture solution (GHAS);Glioblastoma; Microarray;Gene expression

References

  1. 허준(조선). 원본동의보감. 서울:남산당. 1998:386.
  2. 김윤범. 곽향정기산과 가미방이 위장관기능 및 항알레르기에 미치는 영향. 서울 : 경희대학교대학원논문. 1993.
  3. 안정란. 가미곽정탕의 효능에 관한 실험적연구. 서울: 경희대학교대학원논문. 1993.
  4. 윤희식, 유봉하, 박동원, 유기원. 곽향정기산과 소음인곽향정기산의 효능에 관한 실험적 비교연구. 경희한의대논문집. 1998;21(1):197–211.
  5. 이훈. 곽향정기산가미방이 고지방식이로 유도된 흰쥐의 체지방에 미치는 영향. 서울: 경희대학교대학원논문. 2003.
  6. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. Oxygen free radicals and iron in relation to biology and medicine: some problems and concepts. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1986;246(2):501–514. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(86)90305-X
  7. Kehrer JP. Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and disease. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1993;23(1):21–48. https://doi.org/10.3109/10408449309104073
  8. 박숙자, 권정남, 김영균. 중풍환자의 초발군과 재발군에 관한 임상적 고찰. 대한한의학회지. 2002;23(3):119–133.
  9. Smith WS. Pathophysiology of focal cerebral ischemia: a therapeutic perspective. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004;15(1 Pt 2):S3–12. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.RVI.0000108687.75691.0C
  10. Aschner M. Astrocytes as mediators of immune and inflammatory responses in the CNS. Neurotoxicology. 1998;19(2):269–281.
  11. 이웅경, 강성길, 고형균. 봉독약침액이 비만세포주의 CD/cytokine 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향. 대한침구학회지. 2003;20(5):50–62.
  12. Lee JN, Ye J. Proteolytic Activation of Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein Induced by Cellular Stress through Depletion of Insig-1. J. Biol. Chem. 2004;279(43):45257–45265.
  13. Hong X, Li Y, Hussain M, Sarkar FH. Gene expression profiling reveals novel targets of estramustine phosphate in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2004;209(2):187–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2004.02.008
  14. Honig LS, Rosenberg RN. Apoptosis and neurologic disease. Am J Med. 2000;108(4):317–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00291-6
  15. Harris NR, Rumbaut RE. Age-related responses of the microcirculation to ischemia-reperfusion and inflammation. Pathophysiology. 2001;8(1):1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0928-4680(01)00064-5
  16. Leker RR, Shohami E. Cerebral ischemia and trauma-different etiologies yet similar mechanisms : neuroprotective opportunities. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2002;39(1):55–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0173(02)00157-1
  17. 백승일, 이용태, 장경전. 폐수.격수의 호도약침 자극이 알레르기 반응에 미치는 영향. 대한침구학회지. 2003;20(4):180–191.
  18. 신동길, 김덕곤, 이진용. 비만아 9례에 대한 곽향정기산 가미방의 치료효과에 대한 임상적 고찰. 대한한방소아과학회지. 2001;15(1):183–194.
  19. Stuhlmuller B, Ungethum U, Scholze S, Martinez L, Backhaus M, Kraetsch H-G, Kinne RW, Burmester G-R. Identification of known and novel genes in activated monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:775–790.
  20. 유대열, 송창우, 유영춘, 박승용. 게놈기능연구프로토콜. 서울: 월드사이언스. 2001:25,35.
  21. Sambrook J, Russel DW. Molecular cloning. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2001:A10.2.
  22. Luo Z, Geschwind DH. Microarray applications in neuroscience. Neurobiol Dis. 2001;8(2):183–193. https://doi.org/10.1006/nbdi.2001.0387
  23. Yamaguchi N, Benya PD, van der Rest M, Ninomiya Y. The cloning and sequencing of alpha 1(VIII) collagen cDNAs demonstrate that type VIII collagen is a short chain collagen and contains triple-helical and carboxyl-terminal non-triple-helical domains similar to those of type X collagen. J Biol Chem. 1989;264(27):16022–16029.
  24. Turton MD, O'Shea D, Gunn I, Beak SA, Edwards CM, Meeran K, Choi SJ, Taylor GM, Heath MM, Lambert PD, Wilding JP, Smith DM, Ghatei MA, Herbert J, Bloom SR. A role for glucagon-like peptide-1 in the central regulation of feeding. Nature. 1996;379(6560):69–72. https://doi.org/10.1038/379069a0
  25. Drucker DJ. Glucagon-like peptide 2. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(4):1759–1764. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.86.4.1759
  26. Milligan CJ, Buckley NJ, Garret M, Deuchars J, Deuchars SA. Evidence for inhibition mediated by coassembly of GABAA and GABAC receptor subunits in native central neurons. J Neurosci. 2004;24(33):7241–7250. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI
  27. Sbodio JI, Chi NW. Identification of a tankyrase-binding motif shared by IRAP, TAB182, and human TRF1 but not mouse TRF1. NuMA contains this RXXPDG motif and is a novel tankyrase partner. J Biol Chem. 2002;277(35):31887–31892. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M203916200
  28. Lancaster CA, Taylor-Harris PM, Self AJ, Brill S, van Erp HE, Hall A. Characterization of rhoGAP. A GTPase-activating protein for rho-related small GTPases. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(2):1137–1142.
  29. Weber LW, Boll M, Stampfl A. Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis: Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. World J. Gastroenterol. 2004;10(21):3081–3087.