Free Radical Scavenging and Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition Potential of Hygrophila auriculata

  • Vijayakumar, Madhavan (Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute) ;
  • Govindarajan, Raghavan (Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute) ;
  • Shirwaikar, Arun (College of Pharmaceutical sciences, MAHE) ;
  • Kumar, Vivek (Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute) ;
  • Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh (Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute) ;
  • Mehrotra, Shanta (Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute) ;
  • Pushpangadan, Palpu (Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute)
  • 발행 : 2005.03.01


Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum.) Heine is a wild herb commonly found in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches and paddy fields throughout India and is one of the main sources of Ayurvedic 'Rasayana' drug. The free radical scavenging potential of 50% aqueous alcoholic extract of H. auriculata (HAEt) was studied for DPPH scavenging activity, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical and ferryl bipyridyl complex scavenging activity along with lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity inhibition using Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in rat liver homogenate. Integral antioxidative capacity was determined by photochemiluminescence assay. HAEt showed good radical scavenging activity at various concentrations $(200-1000\;{\mu}g/ml)$ against 1,1 diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (32.32-77.02%) with moderate scavenging activity against Nitric oxide (12.46-52.84%), hydroxyl radical (11.69-55.26%), ferryl bipyridyl complex (17.66-58.67%) and lipid peroxidation (0.829-0.416nmoles/mg protein). The above results indicate HAEt to be very effective antioxidant. It was suggested that the varied therapeutic activities claimed for the plant in the Indian indigenous systems of medicine may be in the part due to the free radical scavenging and/ or potent antioxidant activity.


  1. Delanty, N., and Dichter, M.A., Oxidative injury in the nervous system. Acta Nurologica Scandinavica 98, 145-153 (1998)
  2. Govindarajan, R., Rastogi, S., Vijayakumar, M., Rawat, A.K.S., Shirwaikar, A, Mehrotra, S., and Pushpangadan, P., Studies on the antioxidant activities of Desmodium gangeticum. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 26, 1424-1427 (2003a)
  3. Govindarajan, R., Vijayakumar, M., Rawat, AK.S., and Mehrotra, S., Free radical scavenging potential of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth, Indian J. Exp. BioI. 41, 875-879 (2003b)
  4. Valentao, P., Fernndes, E., Canvalho, E., Andrade, P.B., Seabra, R.M., and Bastos, M.L., Antioxidant activity of Hypericum androsaenium infusion scavenging effect on superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 25, 1324-1327 (2002)
  5. Fernando, M.R, Wickramasinghe, S.M.D., Thabrew, M.I., and Karunanayaka, E.H., A preliminary investigation of the possible, hypoglycaemic activity of Asteracanthus longifolia. J. Ethnopharmacol. 27,7-14 (1989)
  6. Marlette, M.A., Nitric oxide: Biosynthesis and Biological significance. Trend. Biochem. Sci. 14,488 (1989)
  7. Singh, A., and Handa, S.S., Hepatoprotective activity of graveolens and H. auriculata against Paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 49, 119-126 (1999)
  8. Sreejayan, N., and Rao, M. N. A., Nitric oxide scavenging by curcuminoids, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 49, 105 (1997)
  9. Jayatilak, P.G., Pardanani, D.S., Murty, B.D., and Seth, A.R., Effect of an indigenous drug (speman) on accessory reproductive fucntions of mice. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 14,170-73 (1976)
  10. Preito, P., Pineda, M., and Aguilar, M., Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phophomolybdemnum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal. Biochem. 269, 337-341 (1999)
  11. Govindarajan, R., Vijayakumar, M., Rao, Ch. v; Rawat, A.K.S., Shirwaikar, A, Mehrotra, S., and Pushpangadan, P., Antioxidant potential of Anogeissus latifolia. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 27, 12661269 (2004a)
  12. Halliwell, B., Superoxide-dependent formation of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of iron chelates. FEBS Letters 92, 321326 (1978)
  13. Okhawa, H., Ohishi, N., and Yagi, K., Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction, Anal. Biochem. 95, 351 (1979)
  14. Wiseman, H., and Halliwell, B., Damage to DNA by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: role in inflammatory disease and progression to cancer. Biochem. J. 313, 17-29 (1996)
  15. Tripathi, Y.B. and Sharma, M., Comparison of the antioxidant action of the alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia with Rubiadin, Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 35, 313 (1998)
  16. Thomas, C.E. and Kalayanaram, B., Oxygen radicals and the disease process, 3rd ed. Hardwood Academic Publishers, Netherland, 1999
  17. Desmarchelier, C, Ramao, R.L., Coussio, J., and Ciccia, G., Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities in extracts from medicinal trees used in the Caatinga region in northeastern Brazil. J. Ethnopharmacol. 67, 69-77 (1999)
  18. Halliwell, B., and Gutteridge, J.M.C., Free radicals, aging and diseases, in Free radicals in biology and medicine, Oxford press, Oxford, 1989, pp. 419-422
  19. Miller, M. J., Sadowska-Krowicka, H., Chotinaruemol, S., Kakkis, J. L., and Clark, D. A., Amelioration of chronic ileitis by nitric oxide synthase inhibition. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 264, 11-16 (1992)
  20. Govindarajan, R., Vijayakumar, M., Rao, Ch. V., Vivek, Kumar, Rawat, A.K.S., and Pushpangadan, P., Action of Asparagus racemosus against streptozotocin -induced oxidative stress. Nat. Prod. Sci. 10, 177-181 (2004b)
  21. Gutteridge, J.M.C., Age pigments and free radicals: fluorescent lipid complexes formed by iron and copper containing proteins, Biochem. Biophy. Acta 834, 144 (1985)
  22. Blois, M.S., Antioxidant determinations by the use of stable free radical. Nature 26, 1199 (1958)
  23. Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., and Randall, R.I., Protein determination using Folin-ciocalteau reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193, 438-448 (1951)
  24. Nash, T., The colorimetric estimation of formaldehyde by means of the Hantzsch reaction. Biochem. J. 55, 416, (1953)