Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Terrapin or Snake Extract on Exercise Performance in Rats

용봉탕 또는 사탕(蛇湯) 보충식이가 횐쥐의 지구력 운동 수행능력에 미치는 영향

  • Published : 2005.04.30


Effect of terrapin or snake extract on forced-swimming capacity and related biochemical parameters of SD rats was evaluated. Treatment groups were fed diet supplemented with 5% terrapin extract or 1% snake extract for 4 weeks. After adaptation for 1 week, each group was divided into two subgroups: one group swam for 90 min (90-min subgroups), and the other swam until exhaustion (all-out subgroups). No significant difference was observed in swimming time until exhaustion among the groups. After swimming for 90 min, contents of fatigue factors of serum such as lactate, inorganic phosphate, creatine kinase, and ammonia were not significantly different (p < 0.05) between control and treatment groups, including all-out subgroups, except for lactate concentration. These results indicated that terrapin or snake extract had little effect on forced-swimming capacity of rats.


rat;terrapin;snake;swimming capacity;endurance exercise performance


  1. Meneguello MO, Mendoca JR., Lancha Jr. AH, Costa Rosa LFBP. Effect of arginine, ornithine and citrulline supplementation upon performance and metabolism of trained rats. Cell. Biochem. Func. 21: 85-91 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1002/cbf.1000
  2. Sachan OS, Hongu N. Increases in VO2max and metabolic markers of fat oxidation by caffeine, camitine, and choline supplementation in rats. J. Nutr. Biochem. 11: 521-526 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(00)00119-4
  3. Kang IH. Health Food of Korean. Daehan Printing and Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea. p. 26 (1992)
  4. Maclaren DP, Gibson H, Parry-Billings M, Edwards RH. A review of metabolism and physiological factors in fatigue. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 17: 29-66 (1989)
  5. Matsumoto K, Ishihara K, Tanaka K, Inoue K, Fushiki T. An adjustable-current swimming pool for the evaluation of endurance capacity of mice. J. Appl. Physiol. 81: 1843-1849 (1996) https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1996.81.4.1843
  6. Jones NL. Muscle performance and fatigue: overview. Hypoxia, Exercise, and Altitude: Proceedings of the third Banff international hypoxia symposium, Alberta, Canada. pp. 237-242 (1983)
  7. Devi SA, Jolitha AB, Prathima S. Temperature-induced changes in anaerobic capacity of interventricular septum in trained young and middle-aged rats. Biogerontology 3: 155-160 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015634906540
  8. Pesce A, Mckay RH, Stolzenbach F, Ccahn RD, Kaplan NO. Comparative enzymology of LDH. J. BioI. Chem. 239: 1753-1761 (1964)
  9. Koo NS, Park JY. Consumption pattern of health food by adults in Taejon. Korean J. Community Nutr. 5: 452-460 (2000)
  10. Pack HA. Evidence based dietary supplements for fatigue and sexual function. J. Korean Acad. Fam. Med. 24: 786-799 (2003)
  11. Lee JH. Dongeuibogam, Samsung Munhwasa Publishing, Co., Seoul, Korea. p. 89 (1991)
  12. Vamier M, Leese GP, Thompson J, Rennie MJ. Stimulatory effect of glutamine on glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 269: E309-E315 (1995)
  13. NamKung S. A study on the recognition for health food of residents in Seoul area. J. East. Asian Soc. Diet. Life 11: 446-454 (2001)
  14. Kim SJ, Back YH, Yeom WS. The change of blood lactate concentration, LDH, CPK, electrolytes, immune system under vitamin B complex and C intake of high school basketball players. J. Nutr. Sci. 4: 61-70 (2000)
  15. KFDA. Food Code, Korea Foods Industry Association Publishing, Moonyongsa Co., Seoul, Korea. pp. 469-507, 825 (2004)
  16. Hickson RC, Rennie MJ, Conlee RK, Winder WW, Holloszy JO. Effects of increased plasma fatty acids on glycogen utilization and endurance. J. Appl. Physiol. 43: R829-R833 (1977) https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1977.43.5.829
  17. Srere PA. Citrate synthase. Method. Enzymol. 13: 3-11 (1969) https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(69)13005-0
  18. Ryu SP, lang UC, Lee SJ, Kwon TD, lung KU, Lee SC. Glucose administration on energy substrates utilization during exercise. J. Nutr. Sci. 4: 49-60 (2000)
  19. Mosso A, Charles C. Fatigue. Thomas Publishers. Rome, Italy (1997)
  20. Ravi Kiran T, Subramanyam MV, Asha Devi S. Swim exercise training and adaptations in the antioxidant defense system of myocardium of old rats: relationship to swim intensity and duration. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B 137: 187-196 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2003.11.002
  21. You SY, Kim HK. Food habits and health food consumption patterns of adults in the Ulsan area. Korean J. Community Nutr. 8: 889-900 (2003)
  22. Chun Y, Yin ZD. Glycogen assay for diagnosis of female genital chlamydia trachomatis infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 1981-1982 (1998)
  23. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HK. Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem. J. 281: 21-40 (1992) https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2810021
  24. Messonnier L, Freund H, Feasson L, Prieur F, Castells J, Denis C, Linossier MT, Geyssant A, Lacour JR. Blood lactate exchange and removal abilities after relative high-intensity exercise: effects of training in normoxia and hypoxia. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol, 84: 403-412 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210000378
  25. James LG, Sareen SG. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. 3rd ed. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning Press, Belmont, CA, USA. pp. 220-244 (1999)
  26. Mutch BJC, Banister EW. Ammonia metabolism in exercise and fatigue: a review. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 15: 41-50 (1983)