DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Protective Effect of Saengshik Supplementation on Lead Induced Toxicity in Rats

생식의 섭취가 납중독 흰쥐의 피해 경감에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구

  • Oh, Young-Joo (R&D Center for Functional Foods, Institute of Food and Culture, Pulmuone Co. Ltd.,) ;
  • Kim, Jae-Min (Preclinical Research Center, ChemOn Inc.,) ;
  • Song, Si-Wan (Preclinical Research Center, ChemOn Inc.,) ;
  • Ha, Hyo-Cheol (R&D Center for Functional Foods, Institute of Food and Culture, Pulmuone Co. Ltd.,) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-Su (R&D Center for Functional Foods, Institute of Food and Culture, Pulmuone Co. Ltd.,)
  • 오영주 (풀무원식문화연구원 기능성연구소) ;
  • 김재민 (㈜켐온 전임상연구센터) ;
  • 송시환 (㈜켐온 전임상연구센터) ;
  • 하효철 (풀무원식문화연구원 기능성연구소) ;
  • 김현수 (풀무원식문화연구원 기능성연구소)
  • Published : 2005.08.01

Abstract

Lead is a ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant that causes a major health concerns. It is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical, and behavioral dysfunctions in laboratory and humans, including hematopoietic system, kidneys, liver, and reproductive system. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Saengshik supplementation on the lead-induced toxicity in rats. Five week old male Sprague­Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups for six weeks as followings: control group (CT), lead acetate treated group (PT), and lead acetate groups administered with three different dosages of Saengshik $(SI2.5-12.5\%,\;S25-25\%,\;and\;S50-50\%).$ Lead acetate (12 mg/rat) was intragastrically administered daily for 6 weeks. The results were summarized as follows; Weight gain and food efficiency ratio were significantly lower (p<0.05) in lead administered group compared with those of the control group. Also, significant lead-induced alteration in blood hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and reticulocyte distribution width (RDW) were observed. In the liver of lead-exposed animals, there was an increase in the lipid peroxidation (MDA) and the level of glutathione (GSH), but superoxiede dismutase (SOD) activity did not change. Lead-exposed animals with $25\%\;and\;50\%$ Saengshik supplementation showed marked improvements in the values of MCH, MCV, and RDW. Also, the level of HCT was significantly increased by $50\%$ Saengshik supplementation. The levels of liver MDA in $12.5\%\;and\;50\%$ Saengshik administered groups and GSH level in $50\%$ Saengshik administered group were significantly decreased compared to the lead administered group. Also, hepatic SOD activity tended to increase in the presence of Saengshik supplementation. Furthermore, the accumulation of lead in liver and kidney was reduced by presence of Saneghshik supplementation. Liver lead concentration was significantly reduced by both $25\%\;and\;50\%$ Saengshik supplementations and kidney lead concentration was significantly reduced by the $25\%$ Saengshik supplementation. These results show that Saengshik may have a protective effect against lead intoxication but the mechanism of their effects remains unclear.

References

  1. Jarup L. 2003. Harzards of heavy metal contamination.British Medical Bulletin 68: 167-182 https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldg032
  2. Miller H, Boswell FC. 1981. Cadmium, lead, and zinc in growing rats fed com leaf tissue grown on soil amended with sewage sludge or heave metal salts. Environ Health Perspect 42: 197-202 https://doi.org/10.2307/3429209
  3. Baik DW, Kwon WC, Won KP, Kim JH, Kim OH, Sho YS, Kim YJ, Park KS, Seong DK, Seo SC, Lee KJ. 1988. Study on the contents of trace elements in foods. Kor H Food Hygiene 3: 7-18
  4. Korean Health Industry Development Institute. 2002. Dietary intake and risk assessment of contaminants in Korean foods
  5. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. 1989. Evaluation of certain good additives and contaminants. WHO Tech Rep Ser 776: 8-9
  6. Slobozhanina El, Kozlova NM, Lukyanenko LM, Oleksiuk OB, Gabbianelli R, Fedeli D, Caulini GC, Falcioni G. 2005. Lead-induced changes in human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. J Appl Toxicol 25: 109-114 https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.1043
  7. Rasile DA, Stewart PW, Burright RG, Donovick PJ. 1995. Cross generation lead ingestion, behavioral and physiological effects in mice. Brain Res Bull 36: 473-482 https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(94)00228-S
  8. Hsu PC, Guo YL. 2002. Antioxidant nutrients and lead toxicity. Toxicology 180: 33-44 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00380-3
  9. Toplan S, Ozcelik D, Gulyasar T, Akyolcu MC. 2004. Changes in hemorheological parameters due to lead exposure in female rats. J Trace Elem Med Biol 18: 179-182 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2004.02.006
  10. Gurer H, Ercal N. 2000. Can antioxidants be beneficial in the treatment of led poisoning? Free Radic Biol Med 29: 927-945 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(00)00413-5
  11. Hsu JM. 1981. Lead toxicity as related to glutathione metabolism. J Nutr 111: 26-33 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/111.1.26
  12. Upasani CD, Balaraman R. 2003. Protective effect of Spirulina on lead induced deleterious chagnes in the lipid peroxidation and endogeneous antioxidants in rats. Phytotherapy Res 17: 330-334 https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1135
  13. Queiroz ML, Rodrigues AP, Bincoletto C, Figueiredo CA, Malacrida S. 2003. Protective effects of Chiarella vulgaris in lead-exposed mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. Int Immunopharmacol 3: 889-900 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1567-5769(03)00082-1
  14. Li GZ, Liu YM, Li GZ. 2004. Study on the adsorption behaviors of cadmium and lead ions on green tea and black tea by ICP-AES. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 24: 1444-1446
  15. Kim DJ, Cho SY, Hee SK, Lee MK, Kim MJ. 2003. Effect of Korean traditional tea materials water extract on hepatic oxygen free radical generating and scavenging enzyme activities in lead administered rats. Korean J Nutr 36: 11-7124
  16. Dipti P, Yogesh B, Kain AK, Pauline T, Anju B, Sairam M, Singh B, Mongia SS, Selvamurthy W. 2003. Lead induced oxidative stress: Beneficial effects of Kombucha tea. Biomed Environ Sci 16: 276-282
  17. Shukla PK, Khanna VK, Khan MY, Srimal RC. 2003. Protective effect of curcumin against lead neurotoxicity in rat. Hum Exp Toxicol 22: 653-658 https://doi.org/10.1191/0960327103ht411oa
  18. 식품의약품안전청, 2005, 식품의 기준 및 규격 중 개정, 식품의약품안전청고시 제 2005-27호
  19. Park MH. 2002. The status of uncooked food industry and its future. Food Ind and Nutr 7: 1-3
  20. Lee SY. 2002. Manufacture processing of uncooked food on the market. Food Ind and Nutr 7: 11-15
  21. Park J, Yang M, Jun HS, Lee JH, Bae HK, Park T. 2003. Effects of raw brown rice and job's tear supplemented diet on serum and hepatic lipid concentrations, antioxidative system, and immune function of rats. Korean J Nutr 36: 197-206
  22. Lee YJ, Lee HM, Park TS. 2003. Effects of uncooked powdered food on antioxidative system and serum mineral concentrations in rats fed unbalanced diet. Korean J Nutr 36: 898-907
  23. Park SH, Ahn BY, Kim SH, Han JH. 2003. The effect of uncooked powdered food on the weight loss and the biochemical nutritional status in overweight and obese woman. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 13: 39-55
  24. Ha TY, Kim NY. 2003. The effects of uncooked grains and vegetables with mainly brown rice on weight control and serum components in Korean overweight/obese female. Korean J Nutr 36: 183-190
  25. Lee E, Kim WJ, Lee YJ, Lee MK, Kim PG, Park YJ, Kim SK. 2003. Effects on natural complex food on specific enzymes of serum and liver and liver microstructure of rats fed a high fat diet. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 32: 256-262 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.256
  26. Yang BK, Jeong SC, Park JB, Cho SP, Choi YS, Lim SK, Song CH. 2001. Effect of uncooked food on the hyperlipidemlic rats. Korean J Life Sci 11: 298-303
  27. Han JH, Park SH. 2003. The effects of uncooked powdered food on nutrient intake, body fat and serum lipid composition in hyperlipidemic patients. Korean J Nutr 36: 589-602
  28. Kang SM, Shim JY, Hwang SJ, Hong S, Jang HE, Park MH. 2003. Effects of Saengshik supplementation on health improvement in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 32: 906-912 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.906
  29. Jang Y, Lee JH, Kim OY, Park HY, Lee SY. 2001. Consumption of whole grain and legume powder reduces insulin demand, lipid peroxidation, and plasma homocysteine concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc BioI 21: 2065-2071 https://doi.org/10.1161/hq1201.100258
  30. Kim M, Kim ES, Park MH, Hwang SJ, Jeong Y. 2004. Saengshik, a formulated health food, decreases blood glucose and increases survival rate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food 7: 162-167 https://doi.org/10.1089/1096620041224030
  31. American Institute of Nutrition. 1977. Report of American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc Committee on Standards for Nutritional Studies. J Nutr 107: 1340-1348 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/107.7.1340
  32. AOAC. 1980. Official methods of analysis. 14th ed. Association of official analytical chemists, Washington DC
  33. Kim MK, Baek SM. 1996. Effect of dietary calcium level on cadmium and lead toxicity in rats. Korean J Nutr 29: 958-970
  34. Han SH, Shin MK, Kim YW, Lim S. 2000. Effects of methanol extracts of black soybean on enzymes activities of serum in rats fed Pb and Cd solution. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 29: 193-197
  35. Ryu JM, Kim MK. 1996. Effect of dietary cysteine level on cadmium and lead toxicity in rats. Korean J Nutr 29: 597-607
  36. Lee JS, Kim MJ, Park EM. 1997. Effects of extract of Pueraria radix on hematological properties and lead level of the tissue of the Pb-administered rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 26: 488-493
  37. Lowery OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. 1951. Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193: 265-275
  38. Kim MK, Lee HY. 1990. Effect of dietary fiber diet on lead absorption and metabolic changes in growing rats. Korean J Nutr 23: 492-503
  39. Wapnir RA, Exeni RA, Mcvicar M, Lifsheitz F. 1977. Experimental lead poisoning and intestinal transport of glucose, amino acid and sodium. Pediat Res 11: 153-157 https://doi.org/10.1203/00006450-197703000-00001
  40. Quarterman J, Morrison JN, Humphries WR. 1976. The effects of dietary lead content and food restriction on lead retention in rats. Environ Res 12: 180-187 https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-9351(76)90022-0
  41. Kang BH, Son HY, Ha CS, Lee HS, Song SW. 1995. Reference values of hematology and serum chemistry in Ktc: Sprague-Dawley rats. Kor Lab Ani Sci 11 : 141-145
  42. Flora SJS, Pande M, Mehta A. 2003. Beneficial effect of combined administration of some naturally occuring antioxidants (vitamins) and thiol chelators in the treatment of chronic lead intoxication. Chem Biol Interact 145: 267-280 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2797(03)00025-5
  43. Daniel S, Limson JL, Dairam A, Watkins GM, Daya S. 2004. Through metal binding, curcumin protects against leadand cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and against lead-induced tissue damage in rat brain. J Inorganic Biochem 98: 266-275 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2003.10.014
  44. Sivaprasad R, Nagaraj M, Varalakshmi P. 2004. Combined efficacies of lipoic acid and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid against lead-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver. J Nutr Biochem 15: 18-23 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2003.09.001
  45. Flora SJS, Tandon SK. 1987. Effect of combined exposure to lead and ethanol on some biochemical indices in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol 36: 537-541 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(87)90363-7
  46. Machartova V, Racek J, Kohout J, Senft V, Trefil L. 2000. Effect of antioxidant therapy on indicators of free radical activity in workers at risk of lead exposure. Vnitrni Lekarstvi 46: 444-446
  47. Tian L, Lowrence D. 1995. Lead inhibits nitric oxide production in vitro by murine splenic macrophages. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 132: 156-163 https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1995.1096
  48. Ercal N, Treratphan P, Hammond TC, Mathews RH, Grannemann NH, Spitz DR. 1996. In vivo indices of oxidative stress in lead-exposed C57BL/6 mice are reduced by treatment with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid or N-acetyl cysteine. Free Radic Biol Med 21: 157-161 https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(96)00020-2
  49. Fowler BA, Kimmel CA, Woods JS, McConnel EE, Grant LD. 1980. Chronic low-level lead toxicity in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 56: 59-77 https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008X(80)90131-3
  50. Dhawan M, Kachru DN, Tandon SK. 1988. Influence of thiamine and ascorbic acid supplementation on the antidotal efficacy of thiol chelators in experimental laed intoxication. Arch Toxicol 62: 301-304 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00332491
  51. Kagi JHR, Vallee BL. 1961. Methalloprotein, a cadmium and zinc containing protein from equine renal cortex. J Biol Chem 236: 2435-2442
  52. Flora SJ, Tandon SK. 1990. Beneficial effects of zinc supplementation during chelation treatment of lead intoxication in rats. Toxicology 64: 129-139 https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-483X(90)90130-9
  53. Kimura MH, Hamashita T, Komata J. 1986. Use of green tea as an adsorbent of several metal ions in water. Bunseki Kagaku 35: 400-405 https://doi.org/10.2116/bunsekikagaku.35.4_400
  54. Zmudzki J, Bratton GR, Womac C, Rowe LD. 1984. The influence of milk diet, grain diet, and method of dosing on lead toxicity in young calves. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 76: 490-497 https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008X(84)90353-3
  55. Hwang JK. 2002. Function of uncooked foods. Food Ind and Nutr 7: 16-19
  56. Yoon OH. 2002. The effect of uncooked food for human health. Food Ind and Nutr 7: 4-10
  57. West LG, Meyer KA, Balch BA, Rossi FJ, Schultz MR, Haas GW. 2004. Glucoraphanin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin contents in seeds of 59 cultivars of broccoli, raab, kohlrabi, radish, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kale, and cabbage. J Agric Food Chem 52: 916-926 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0307189
  58. Hwang DF, Wang LC. 2001. Effect of taurine on toxicity of cadmium in rats. Toxicology 167: 173-180 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(01)00472-3

Cited by

  1. Effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice vol.9, pp.6, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2015.9.6.619
  2. Saengshik, a Formulated Health Food, Prevents Liver Damage in CCl4-Induced Mice and Increases Antioxidant Activity in Elderly Women vol.11, pp.2, 2008, https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2007.549
  3. Five cases of Pruritus Gravidarum through treatment with Saengshik and Application of Hwangryunhaedok-tang on skin vol.27, pp.4, 2014, https://doi.org/10.6114/jkood.2014.27.4.251