DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A Study on Infant Weaning Practices Based on Maternal Education and Income Levels

양육인의 교육 및 수입정도에 따른 이유기 식생활관리에 대한 실태조사

  • Kim, Song-Suk (Division of Culinary Arts & Nutrition, Gumi College)
  • 김송숙 (구미1대학 호텔조리계열)
  • Published : 2005.08.01

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of maternal factors such as knowledge, attitude and practice of weaning with infant feeding. The subjects were 103 mothers visiting a public health center in Gumi, Kyungbook who filled out self-administered Questionnaires. First of all, about $90\%$ of the participants recognized the importance of complementary foods and proper weaning practices. The response for the recognition of the importance of infant weaning process showed a significant difference by education levels. Concerning an appropriate time for the introduction of weaning foods, $53\%$ of mothers had commenced weaning at age $4\~6$ months, while $38\%$ had done so at age $6\~8$ months. Approximately $76\%$ of mothers fed their babies without the knowledge of age-related weaning method and type of weaning foods. There were no statistical differences in maternal weaning knowledges between levels of education and house income. Mothers with higher levels of education and family income tended to show high perception scores regarding possibility of food allergies caused by baby foods. A demand for reliable sources and education related to nutritious weaning foods and weaning practices were strong in the group with higher education. Knowledge of weaning method and baby foods were obtained by 59 of the 103 mothers from mass media, 35 from friends caring babies, and 9 obtained advice from health professionals or family. Advice from the heath professionals was not the main influence on their decision to introduce weaning foods. Although commercial baby foods are the most commonly used as first weaning foods, those with higher education groups considered commercial baby food are not nutritionally better than home-maid foods. The current findings suggest to us that to improve weaning process, mothers should be educated on the selection and preparation of nutritious, balanced weaning foods and on good weaning practices. It is advised that supportive health professionals from community public health centers should lead the education of infant feeding practices based on maternal characteristics and on basic food and nutritional knowledge.

References

  1. Krebs NF. 2001. Bioavailability of dietary supplements and impact of physiologic state: infants, children and adolescents. J Nutr 131: 1351S-1354S https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.4.1351S
  2. Lanigan JA, Bishop JA, Kimber AC, Morgan J. 2001. Systematic review concerning the age of intriduction of complementary foods to the healthy full-term infant. European J Clin Nutr 55: 309-320 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601168
  3. Bhandari N, Bahl R, Nayyar B, Khokhar P, Rohde J, Bhan MK. 2001. Food supplementation with encouragement to feed it to infants from 4 to 12 months of age has a small impact on weight gain. J Nutr 131: 1946-1951
  4. Jung UJ, Kim KS, Kim MK, Kim SN. 1995. Study on iron deficiency anemia in infancy. Korean Pediatr 38: 1253-1260
  5. Hurtado EK, Claussen AH, Scott KG. 1999. Early childhood anemia and mild or moderate mental retardation. Am J Clin Nuir 69: 115-119 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/69.1.115
  6. Lozoff B, Jimenez E, Wolf AW. 1991. Long-term developmental outcome of infants with iron defficiency. N Engl J Med 325: 687-694 https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199109053251004
  7. Kwon JY, Park HR, Whang EM. 2001. The assessment of dietary quality in todcller of 12-36 months. Korean J Nutr 34: 176-187
  8. Carvalho NF, Kenney RD, Carrington PH, Hall DE. 2001. Severe nutritional deficencies in toddlers resulting from health food milk alternatives. Pediatr 107: e46 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.107.4.e46
  9. Dewey KG. 2001. The challenges of promoting optimal infant growth. J Nutr 131: 1879-1880
  10. Guldan GS, Fan HC, Ma X, Ni ZZ, Xiang X, Tang MZ. 2000. Culturally appropriate nutrition education improves infant feeding and growth in rural Sichuan, China. J Nutr 130: 1204-1211
  11. Park HR, Lim YS. 1999. A study of the effect of weaning foods-feeding methods in weaning periods on preschoolchildren's food habit, food preference and iron nutrional status. Korean J Nutr 32: 259-267
  12. Anderson AS, Guthrie CA, Alder EM, Forsyth S, Howie PW, Williams FL. 2001. Rattling the plate-reasons and rationales for early weaning. Health Educ Res 16: 471-479 https://doi.org/10.1093/her/16.4.471
  13. Hammer LD, Bryson S, Agras S. 2003. Development of feeding practices during thr first 5 years of life. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 153: 189-194
  14. Barton SJ. 2001. Infant feeding practices of low-income rural mothers. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 26: 93-97 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005721-200103000-00008
  15. Savage SAH, Reilly JJ, Edwards CA, Durnin JVGA. 1998. Weaning practice in the Glasgow longitudinal infant growth study. Arch Dis Child 79: 153-156 https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.79.2.153
  16. Hoare K. 1994. Tackling infant malnutrition in thr Gambia. Health Visit 67: 102-103
  17. Park MN, Lee MJ, Lee YS. 1998. Effects of dietary protein levels on organ growth and protein metabolism in eary and normally weaned rats. Korean J Nutr 31: 5-12
  18. Padmadas SS, Hutter I, Willekens F. 2002. Weaning initiation patterns and subsequent linear growth progression among children aged 2-4 years in India. Int J Epidemiol 31: 855-863 https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/31.4.855
  19. Sultan AN, Zuberi RW. 2003. Late weaning: the most significant risk factor in the development of iron deficiency anaemia at 1-2 years of age. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 15: 3-7
  20. Roncagliolo M, Garrido M, Walter T, Peirano P, Lozoff B. 1998. Evidence of altered centeral nervous system development in infants with iron deficiency anemia at 6 mo: delayed maturation of auditory brainstem responses. Am J Clin Nutr 68: 683-690 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/68.3.683
  21. Hallberg L, Hoppe M, Andersson M, Hulthen L. 2003. The role of meat to improve the critical iron balance during weaning. Pediatr 111: 864-870 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.111.4.864
  22. Calvo EB, Galindo AC, Aspres NB. 1992. Iron status in exclusively breast-fed infants. Pediatr 90: 375-379
  23. Kwon JY, Park H, Whang EM. 2001. The effect of milk group intake to dietary diversity score and nutrient adequacy ratio among toddler. Korean J Nutr 34: 30-38
  24. Lee YB, Choi YB, Sohn HS. 1997. Effects of commercial soy milk and cow milk on iron status and work capacity of rats. Korean J Nutr 30: 904-910
  25. Foote KD, Marriott LD. 2003. Weaning of infants. Arch Dis Child 88: 488-492 https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.88.6.488
  26. Whitehead RG. The human weaning process. 1985. Pediatr 75: 189-193
  27. Lanigan JA, Bishop J, Kimber AC, Morgan J. 2001. Systematic review concerning the age of introduction of complementary foods to the healthy full-term infant. Eur J Clin Nutr 55: 309-320 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601168
  28. Hornell A, Hofvander Y, Kylber E. 2001. Introduction of solids and formula to breastfed infants: a logitudinal prospective study in Uppsala, Sweden. Acta Paediair 90: 477-482
  29. Bai HS, Ahn HS. 1996. Solid foods intake pattern during the first 6 months of life. Korean J Community Nutr 1: 335-345
  30. Yang HR, Kim ES, Kim YC, Han SH. 2001. Study on the mineral contents of commercial baby foods. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 30: 388-394
  31. Edwards CA, Parrett AM. 2003. Dietary fibre in infancy and childhood. Proc Nutr Soc 62: 17-23
  32. Chang SO. 2000. A study on the perception, use, and demand of housewife-consumers for nutrition label. Korean J Nutr 33: 763-773
  33. Kim HS, Lim HS. 1998. Utilization of the current food labeling system of processed foods and awareness on nutrition labeling amomg middle school female teachers. Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 27: 765-774
  34. Chang NS. 1997. Food/nutrition attitudes, views and practices of adults in Seoul area. Korean J Nutr 30: 360-369
  35. Haschken F. 1992. The Nutrition Committee of the Austrian Society of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. Comment on nutrition with solid foods in infancy and early childhood. Padiatr Padol 27: 57-59
  36. Park HR, Lim YS. 1997. Effects of weaning food-feeding methods on infant's nutrition. J Natural Sciences (Myong Ji Univ.) 15: 70-81
  37. Gerrish CJ, Mennella JA. 2001. Flavor variety enhances food acceptance in formula-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 73: 1080-1085 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/73.6.1080
  38. Mosha TCE, Laswai HS, Tetens I. 2000. Nutritional composition and micronutrient status of home made and commercial weaning foods consumed in Tanzania. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 55: 185-205 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008116015796