Availability of Heavy Metals in Soils with Different Characteristics and Controversial Points for Analytical Methods of Soil Contamination in Korea

토양특성별 중금속 유효도와 토양오염 평가방법의 개선점

  • Jung, Goo-Bok (National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Environmental and Ecology Division, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Won-Il (National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Environmental and Ecology Division, RDA) ;
  • Lee, Jong-Sik (National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Environmental and Ecology Division, RDA) ;
  • Shin, Joung-Du (National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Environmental and Ecology Division, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Jin-Ho (National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Environmental and Ecology Division, RDA) ;
  • Yun, Sun-Gang (Research Development Bureau, Research Management Division, RDA)
  • 정구복 (농업과학기술원 환경생태과) ;
  • 김원일 (농업과학기술원 환경생태과) ;
  • 이종식 (농업과학기술원 환경생태과) ;
  • 신중두 (농업과학기술원 환경생태과) ;
  • 김진호 (농업과학기술원 환경생태과) ;
  • 윤순강 (농촌진흥청 연구개발국 연구관리과)
  • Published : 2005.06.30


This experiment was conducted to investigate available extraction capacity and potential mobility of heavy metal according to the distribution property and contamination level of heavy metals in soils and to suggest a reform measure of soil environment assessment methodology applied with soil quality and the official soil heavy metal test methods in domestic and foreign countries. The soils were collected from the natural forest paddy with long-term application of same type fertilizer, and paddies near metal mine and industrial complex. The post-treatment methods of soil were partial extraction, acid digestion and sequential extraction methods. For the heavy metal contents with different soil properties, it was shown that their natural forest and paddy soil were slightly low and similar to the general paddy soil, while their paddies near metal mine and industrial complex were higher than the standard level of Soil Environment Protection Act. Heavy metal concentrations in the soils with different soil properties had difference between $HNO_3\;and\;HNO_3+HCl$ extractant by US-EPA 3051a method. There were highly significant positive relationships in both two methods. It was appeared that the higher extractable concentration ratio with 0.1N-HCl to total heavy metal content with $HNO_3+HCl$ extractant the greater total heavy metal content. There were highly significant positive correlationship between total heavy metal content and extractable content with 0.1N-HCl. For extractable capacity of soil extractable solution compared to the total heavy metal content it was appeared that it extractable method with 0.1N-HCl was higher than those with EDTA and DTPA. In extractable ratio with 0.1N-HCl in the contaminated paddy soils near mine and industrial complex, it was shown that the lower soil pH, the higher total heavy metal content. The order of a potential mobility coefficient by distribution of heavy metal content with ie different typies in the soil was Cd>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb. It could be known that contamination characteristics of heavy metals with different types of soils were affected by different heavy metal components, contamination degree and soil chemical properties, and heavy metal concentration with different extractable methods had great variations with adjacent environment. To be compared with assessment methodology of soil environment impact at domestic and foreign countries with our results, it might be considered that there was necessary to make a single analysis method based on total heavy metal content with environmental overloading concept because of various analysis methods for total heavy metal content and present analysis method with great variation according to soil environment. In spite of showing higher concentration of heavy metal with acidic digestion than the extractable method, it might be considered that there is need to be adjusted the national standard of soil heavy metal contamination.



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