Volatilization of molinate in paddy rice ecosystem and its concentration in air causing phytotoxicity to chili pepper

벼 재배 환경 중 molinate의 휘산과 공기 중 고추약해 발현농도

  • Park, Byung-Jun (National Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, RDA) ;
  • Choi, Ju-Hyeon (National Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Chan-Sub (National Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, RDA) ;
  • Im, Geon-Jae (National Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, RDA) ;
  • Oh, Byung-Youl (National Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, RDA) ;
  • Shim, Jae-Han (Division of Applied Bioscience and Biotechnology and Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology)
  • 박병준 (농업과학기술원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 최주현 (농업과학기술원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 김찬섭 (농업과학기술원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 임건재 (농업과학기술원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 오병렬 (농업과학기술원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 심재한 (전남대학교 응용생물공학부, 농업기술연구소)
  • Published : 2005.03.31


To evaluate the exposure of molinate in agricultural environment and its effect against the non-target crop in air, this experiment was conducted to elucidate volatilization characteristics of molinate in aquatic condition and to determine critical concentration of molinate in the air causing phytotoxicity to Chili pepper. Cumulative volatilized rate of molinate from water was 22.7% at $35^{\circ}C$ for water temperature and 20 L/min for air velocity while 3.2% at $25^{\circ}C$ and 10 L/min within 47 hour after applied under closed system, respectively. The molinate concentrations in air above 60 cm height from soil surface of valley and open paddy rice field were reached the highest value of 18.17 and $11.59{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively within 24 hours after applying granular formulation at dose rate of molinate 150 g/1,000 $m^2$. However, their concentrations were drastically diminished to around 0.18 and $0.51{\mu}g/m^3$ level in 20 days after application, which volatilization pattern were similar to both regions. Also, the concentration of molinate in air above 60 cm height from soil surface was distributed higher 2 times than that above 180 cm height. Meanwhile, a phytotoxic symptom against the nearby chili pepper was revealed within three days after applied and molinate was detected $0.004{\sim}0.006$ mg/kg level from severe damaged leaves. The dose and exposure relations of molinate in the air against the non-target crop was also investigated in lab trial. The phytotoxic symptom, shriveled leaves, of the chili pepper was encountered by exposing two days with concentration of $13.6{\mu}g/m^3$, three days with $6.8{\mu}g/m^3$ or four days with $3.4{\mu}g/m^3$. The symptom was still recovered within four weeks after the plants had received fresh air. On the other hand, the phytotoxic response through root uptake of the herbicide in water culture was relatively insensitive, in which the symptom is observed ten days with the concentration of 300 ${\mu}g/L$.


  1. Woodrow, J. E. and J. N. Seiber (1997) Correlation techniques for estimating pesticide volatilization flux and downwind concentrations. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31:523-529 https://doi.org/10.1021/es960357w
  2. Rudel, H., S. Schmidt, W. Kordel and W. Klein (1993) Degradation of pesticide in soil-comparison of laboratory experiments in a biometer system and outdoor lysimeter experiments. Science of the Total Environment 132(2-3):181-200 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(93)90131-O
  3. Seiber, J, N., M. M. McChesney (1987) Measurement and computer simulation of the volatilization flux of molinate and methyl parathion from a flooded rice field. Contract Report No. 6854, Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, California, U.S.A
  4. Charles, J. S., J. B. Bowers and D. G. Crosby (1977) Dissipation of molinate in a rice field. Agric. Food Chem. 25:940-945 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60212a022
  5. Curry, K. K., B. D. Riggle and R. E. Hoag (1989) Ordram$^{\circledR}$ 15-G aquatic field dissipation study for aquatic use post flood. Report No. 228-073, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Sacramento, California, U.S.A
  6. Steffens, W., W. Mittelstaedt, A. Stork and F. Fuhr (1992) Thelysimeter station at the institute of radioagronomy of the research center Julich GMBH(KFA). Lysimeter studies of the fate of pesticides in the soil. British crop protection council, Monograph No 53:21-34
  7. 김길웅 (1998) 최신잡초방제학원론, 경북대학교
  8. Seiber, J, N. and M. M. McChesney (1989) Airborne residues resulting from use of molinate, methyl parathion, thiobencarb on rice in the Sacramento Vallley. California. Environmental Toxicol. and Chem. 8:577-588 https://doi.org/10.1897/1552-8618(1989)8[577:ARRFUO]2.0.CO;2
  9. Soderquist, C. J., J. B. Bowers and D. G. Crosby (1977) Dissipation of moliuate in a rice field. J. Agric. Food Chem. 25(4):940-945 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60212a022
  10. Ross, L. J. and R. J. Sava (1986) Fate of thiobencarb and molinate in rice fields. J. Environmental Quality 15(3):220-224
  11. Hartly, G. S., and I. J. Graham-Bryce (1980a) Principles of diffusion and flow. pp.110-203. In Physical principles of pesticide behavior. Vol. 1. Academic press, New York, U.S.A
  12. Imai, Y. and S. Kuwatsuka (1984) Uptake, translocation, and metabolic fate of the herbicide molinate in plants. J. Pesticide Sci. 9:79-90 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.9.79
  13. Woodrow, J. E. and J. N. Seiber and C. Dary (2001) Predicting pesticide emission and downwind concentrations using correlation with estimated vapor pressures. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:3841-3846 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010358u
  14. Aden, K., and B. Diekkruger (2000) Modeling pesticide dynamics of four different sites using the model system SIMULAT. Agri. Water Management 44:337-355 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(99)00099-2
  15. Baker, L. W., D. L. Fitzell (1996) Ambient air concentration of pesticides in califonia. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 1365-1368 https://doi.org/10.1021/es950608l
  16. Seiber, J., N., M. M. McChesney and J. E. Woodrow (1989) Airborne residues resulting from use of methyl parathion, molinate and thiobencarb on rice in the sacramento valley, california. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 8:577-588 https://doi.org/10.1897/1552-8618(1989)8[577:ARRFUO]2.0.CO;2
  17. 전재철 (2000) Molinate에 의한 고추 약해 발생원인 조사. 농약공업협회