Characterization of the Aroma of Salt-fermented Anchovy Sauce Using Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry Based on Sample Dilution Analysis

  • Published : 2005.04.30

Abstract

Aroma-active compounds were evaluated from salt-fermented anchovy sauce by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry (SPME-GC-O) based on sample dilution analysis (SDA). SPME extract from carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber was the most similar to the original odor of salt-fermented anchovy sauce used for this experiment, followed by divinylbenzene/CAR/PDMS (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber. Because salt-fermented anchovy sauce contains 23% NaCl, NaCl concentration of diluent was considered when salt-fermented anchovy sauce was serially diluted. Linear relationship between GC response and sample concentration was observed when diluted with 23% NaCl solution, whereas not observed when diluted with deodorized distilled water. Eleven and 16 aroma-active compounds were detected by SPME-GC-O based on SDA using CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS fibers, respectively. Butanoic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid showed the highest ${\log}_2SD$ factors for CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS fibers. Dimethyl trisulfide, methional, trimethyl amine, 1-penten-3-ol, and acetic acid were also detected as potent aroma-active compounds.

References

  1. Flavor of fish meat;Flavor of Meat, Meat Products and Seafoods Durnford, E.;Shahidi, F.;Shahidi, F.(ed.)
  2. Fish fermentation technology in Korea;Fish Fermentation Technology Lee, C.H.;Lee, C.H.(ed.);Steinkraus, K.H.(ed.);Reilly, P.J.A.(ed.)
  3. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. v.21 Volatile flavor components in Korean salt-fermented anchovy Cha, Y.J.
  4. J. Korean Fish. Soc. v.27 The accelerative effect on fermentation of salted and fermented anchovy by homogenates of sea tangle, Laminaria japonica aresschoug Byun, H.S.;Lee, T.G.;Lee, Y.W.;Park, Y.B.;Kim, S.B.;Park, Y.H.
  5. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. v.18 Keeping quality and taste compounds in the extracts from rapid fermented anchovy sauce Lee, E.H.;Ahn, C.H.;Kim, J.S.;Lee, K.H.;Kim, M.C.;Chung, B.K.;Park, H.Y.
  6. Aroma-active compounds in salt-fermented anchovy;Flavor and Lipid Chemistry of Seafoods Cha, Y.J.;Lee, G.H.;Cadwallader, K.R.;Shahidi, F.(ed.);Cadwallader, K.R.(ed.)
  7. J. Korean Fish. Soc. v.35 Difference of components change in salt-fermented anchovy, Engraulis japonicus sauce by tank size during fermentation Lim, Y.S.;You, B.J.;Choi, Y.J.;Cho, Y.J.
  8. Bull. Food Technol. v.9 Processing technique and quality control of fermented seafood Kim, Y.M.
  9. Solid Phase Microextraction - Theory and Practice Pawliszyn, J.
  10. J. Chromatogr. A v.880 Applications of solid-phase microextraction in food analysis Kataoka, H.;Lord, H.L.;Pawliszyn, J.
  11. Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of aromas and flavors;Flavor, Fragrance, and Odor Analysis Harmon, A.D.;Marsili, R.(ed.)
  12. Gas chromatography-olfactometry in food aroma analysis;Flavor, Fragrance, and Odor Analysis Blank, I.;Marsili, R.(ed.)
  13. Trends Food Sci. Technol. v.4 Detection of potent odorants in foods by aroma extract dilution analysis Grosch, W.
  14. Trends Food Sci. Technol. v.4 Detection of potent odorants in foods by aroma extract dilution analysis Grosch, W.
  15. Quantitative use of gas chromatography-olfactometry: the GC- SNIF method;Flavor, Fragrance, and Odor Analysis Chaintreau, A.;Marsili, R.(ed.)
  16. J. Agric. Food Chem. v.47 Solid phase microextraction application in gas chromatography/olfactometry dilution analysis Deibler, K.D.;Acree, T.E.;Lavin, E.H.
  17. Food Chem. v.83 Aroma dilution method using GC injector split ratio for volatile compounds extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction Kim, T.H.;Lee, S.M.;Kim, Y.S.;Kim, K.H.;Oh, S.S.;Lee, H.J.
  18. J. Agric. Food Chem. v.51 Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of successively diluted samples. A new approach of the aroma extract dilution analysis applied to the characterization of wine aroma Marti, P.M.;Mestres, M.;Sala, C.;Busto, O.;Guasch, J.
  19. Food Sci. Biotechnol. v.13 Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry of soy sauce based on sample dilution analysis Baek, H.H.;Kim, H.J.
  20. SAS User's Guide SAS Institute, Inc.
  21. J. Chromatogr. v.11 A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gasliquid partition chromatography Van den Dool, H.;Kratz, P.D.
  22. J. Agric. Food Chem. v.51 Solid phase microextraction (SPME) of orange juice flavor: odor representativeness by direct gas chromatography olfactometry (D-GC-O) Rega, B.;Fournier, N.;Guichard, E.
  23. J. Chromatogr. A v.873 Analysis of volatile contaminants in vegetable oils by headspace solid-phase microextraction with carboxen-based fibers Page, B.D.;Lacroix, G.
  24. Agric. BioI. Chem. v.44 Shoyu (Soy sauce) flavor components: acidic fraction and the characteristic flavor component Nobutake, N.;Masaoki, S.;Tamotsu, Y.
  25. Food Chem. v.67 Changes in aromatic volatile composition of strawberry after high pressure treatment Lambert, Y.;Demazeau, G.;Largeteau, A.;Bouvier, J.M.
  26. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. v.32 Characteristics of volatile flavor compounds in kochujangs with meju and soybean koji during fermentation Choi, J.Y.;Lee, T.S.;Noh, B.S.
  27. Wine;Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages Patrick, X.E.;Henk, M.(ed.)
  28. The Chemical Biology of Fishes Love, R.M.
  29. Occurrence and significance of trimethylamine oxide and its derivatives in fish and shellfish;Chemistry and Biochemistry of Marine Food Products Hebard, C.E.;Flick, G.J.;Martin, R.E.;Martin, R.(ed.);Flick, G.J.(ed.);Hebard, C.E.(ed.);Ward, D.R.(ed.)
  30. MTS J. v.25 Chemical basis of the quality of seafood flavors and aromas Lindsay, R.C.
  31. J. Food Sci. v.54 Volatile flavor components from crayfish waste Tanchotikul, U.;Hsieh, T.Y.C.