DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Urinary Cortisol Levels in Japanese Shorthorn Cattle before and after the Start of a Grazing Season

  • Higashiyama, Y. (Department of Animal Production and Grassland Farming, National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region) ;
  • Narita, H. (Department of Animal Production and Grassland Farming, National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region) ;
  • Nashiki, M. (Department of Animal Production and Grassland Farming, National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region) ;
  • Higashiyama, M. (Department of Animal Production and Grassland Farming, National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region) ;
  • Kanno, T. (Department of Forage Production, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science)
  • Received : 2004.09.26
  • Accepted : 2005.02.26
  • Published : 2005.10.01

Abstract

We conducted two experiments to assess the effect of transfer from housing to grazing on stress hormone secretion in cattle using urine samples. In a preliminary experiment, urine samples were collected following an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge, and cortisol levels in urine were compared with the levels in plasma. In a second experiment, urinary cortisol was measured before and after the start of a grazing season in 6 Japanese Shorthorn cows, all of which had experienced grazing before. In experiment 1, urinary cortisol showed a pattern of changes similar to that of plasma with a 0.5-h temporal lag time, and the peak levels were 4 to 10 times higher than the basal levels. In experiment 2, the urinary cortisol levels in cows did not change after the cows were let out to pasture, with no decreases in body weight. This study suggests that the transfer from housing to grazing did not affect physiological responses to cause high excretion of urinary cortisol in grazing-experienced cattle using a non-invasive sampling method.

Keywords

Cortisol;Urine;Stress;Cattle

References

  1. Fisher, A. D., G. A. Verkerk, C. J. Morrow and L. R. Matthews. 2002. The effects of feed restriction and lying deprivation on pituitary-adrenal axis regulation in lactating cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 73:255-263.
  2. Morton, D. J., E. Anderson, C. M. Foggin, M. Kock and E. Tiran. 1995. Plasma cortisol as an indicator of stress due to capture and translocation in wildlife species. Vet. Rev. 136:60-63.
  3. Morrow, C. J., E. S. Kolver, G. A. Verkerk and L. R. Matthews. 2000. Urinary corticosteroids: an indicator of stress in dairy cattle. Proc. N.Z. Soc. Anim. Prod. 60:218-221.
  4. Redbo, I. 1993. Stereotypies and cortisol secretion in heifers subjected to tethering. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 38:213-225.
  5. Verkerk, G. A., A. M. Phipps, J. F. Carragher, L. R. Matthews and K. Stelwagen. 1998. Characterization of milk cortisol concentrations as a measure of short-term stress responses in lactating dairy cows. Anim. Welfare 7:77-86.
  6. Wenzel, C., S. Schonreiter-Fischer and J. Unshelm. 2003. Studies on step-kick behavior and stress of cows during milking in an automatic milking system. Livest. Prod. Sci. 83:237-246.
  7. Redbo, I. 1990. Changes in duration and frequency of stereotypies and their adjoining behaviours in heifers, before, during and after the grazing period. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 26:57-67.
  8. SAS Institute Inc. 1988. SAS User’s Guide (Release 6.03). SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.
  9. Klante, G., T. Brinschwitz, K. Secci, F. Wollnik and S. Steinlechner. 1997. Creatinine is an appropriate reference for urinary sulphatoxymelatonin of laboratory animals and humans. J. Pineal Res. 23:191-197.
  10. Miller, M. W., N. T. Hobbs and M. C. Sousa. 1991. Detecting stress responses in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis): reliability of cortisol concentrations in urine and feces. Can. J. Zool. 69:15-24.
  11. Leeuw, J. A., E. D. Ekkel, A. W. Jongbloed and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2003. Effects of floor-feeding and the presence of a foraging substrate on the behaviour and stress physiological response of individually housed gilts. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 80:297-310.
  12. Mostl, E. and R. Palme. 2002. Hormones as indicators of stress. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 23:67-74.
  13. Oshio, S. and I. Tahata. 1981. Studies on the method of adaptation to grazing environment: 2. Influence of various feeds before grazing on the microbial populations in the rumen of calves grazed on pasture (in Japanese, with Japanese abstract). Bull. Natl. Grassl. Res. Inst. 20:132-144.
  14. Wasser, S. K., K. E. Hunt, J. L. Brown, K. Cooper, C. M. Crockett, U. Bechert, J. J. Millspaugh, S. Larson and S. L. Monfort. 2000. A generalized fecal glucocorticoid assay for use in a diverse array of nondomestic mammalian and avian species. Gene. Comp. Endocrinol. 120:260-275.
  15. Hopster, H., J. T. N. van der Werf, J. H. F. Erkens and H. J. Blokhuis. 1999. Effects of repeated jugular puncture on plasma cortisol concentrations in loose-housed dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 77:708-714.
  16. Ladewig, J. and D. Smidt. 1989. Behavior, episodic secretion of cortisol, and adrenocortical reactivity in bulls subjected to tethering. Horm. Behav. 23:344-360.
  17. Verkerk, G. A., K. L. Macmillan and L. M. McLeay. 1994. Adrenal cortex response to adrenocorticotropic hormone in dairy cattle. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 11:115-123.
  18. Mostl, E., S. Messmann, E. Bagu, C. Robia and R. Palme. 1999. Measurement of glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in faeces of domestic livestock. J. Vet. Med. A46:621-631.
  19. Morrow, C. J., E. S. Kolver, G. A. Verkerk and L. R. Matthews. 2002. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites as a measure of adrenal activity in dairy cattle. Gene. Comp. Endocrinol. 126:229-241.
  20. Hay, M., M.-C. Meunier-Salaun, F. Brulaud, M. Monnier and P. Mormede. 2000. Assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system activity in pregnant sows through the measurement of glucocorticoids and catecholamines in urine. J. Anim. Sci. 78:420-428.
  21. Saeki, H. 1993. A present state of study of Japanese theileriasis (in Japanese). J. Anim. Protozooses 4:64-73.

Cited by

  1. Review: Minimally invasive sampling media and the measurement of corticosteroids as biomarkers of stress in animals vol.92, pp.3, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas2012-045
  2. The behavioral and endocrinological development of stress response in dogs vol.56, pp.4, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.21141
  3. Profile of the urinary excretion of prednisolone and its metabolites in finishing bulls and cows treated with a therapeutic schedule vol.10, pp.1, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-014-0237-0
  4. Influence of calving difficulty on dry matter intake immediately after calving of dairy cows pp.13443941, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.13188