DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Feed Withdrawal and Heat Acclimatization on Stress Responses of Male Broiler and Layer-type Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

  • Mahmoud, Kamel Z. (Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture Jordan University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Yaseen, A.M. (Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture Jordan University of Science and Technology)
  • Received : 2004.09.22
  • Accepted : 2005.04.14
  • Published : 2005.10.01

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed withdrawal (F) and heat acclimatization (A) on malebroiler and -layer chickens responses to acute heat stress (AHS) at four weeks of age. Totals of ninety male chicks of broiler or layer type were randomly allocated into 30 pens of grower batteries with raised wire floors. Chicks were subjected to F and A three times a week through the first three weeks of age. At each time, feed withdrawal and heat acclimatization (T = $35^{\circ}C$) lasted for six and four hours, respectively. Feed consumption (FC), body weight (BW), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded weekly for broiler type chickens only. At four weeks of age, all groups of chickens were exposed to AHS (T = $39{\pm}1^{\circ}C$) for three hours. Before and after AHS challenge, body temperature (Tb), heterophil (H), and lymphocyte (L) counts were recorded, and H/L ratio was calculated. Antibody (Ab) response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was assessed from all treatments without being exposed to AHS. Group F of broiler-type chickens weighed less (p<0.05) compared to control group. Also, both A and F groups of broiler-type chickens consumed less (p<0.05) feed when compared to control group. Acute heat stress elevated Tb of all treatment groups, however the increase was more profound (p<0.001) in broiler chicks. Broiler chicks of both A and F groups showed a tendency to have higher (p = 0.08) Tb when compared to control group. Acute heat stress elevated (p<0.001) H/L ratio in both types of chickens. Broiler chicks maintained higher (p<0.001) H/L ratio. Both F and A groups reduced (p<0.01) the level of elevation in H/L ratio compared to control groups of both types of chickens. Neither A nor F group affected the Ab production in response to SRBC. However, there was a tendency towards higher Ab responses in F group when compared to other groups in both types of chickens. Results of the present study demonstrate that previous history of feed withdrawal or episodes of heat exposures improved chicks'physiological withstanding of AHS and a tendency to improved humoral immune response.

Keywords

Feed Withdrawal;Acclimatization;Body Temperature;Chicken;H/L;Heat Stress

References

  1. Arjona, A., D. Denbow and W. D. Weaver. 1990. Neonatally induced thermotolerance: physiological responses. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 95:393-399.
  2. El-Gendy, E. and K. W. Wahburn. 1995. Genetic variation in body temperature and its response to short-term acute heat stress in broilers. Poult. Sci. 74:1528-1530.
  3. Maxwell, M. H. and G. W. Robertson. 1998. UK survey of broiler ascites and sudden death syndromes in 1993. Br. Poult. Sci. 39:203-315.
  4. SAS Institute Inc. 1990. SAS/STAT User’s guide: Version 6, fourth ed. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  5. Shini, S. 2003. Physiological responses of laying hens to the alternative housing systems. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 2:357-360.
  6. Zulkifli, I., M. T. Che Norma, D. A. Israf and A. R. Omar. 2000. The effect of early age feed restriction on subsequent response to high environmental temperatures in female broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 79:1401-1407.
  7. Ballay, M., E. A. Dunnington, W. B. Gross and P. B. Siegel. 1992. Restricted feeding and broiler performance: age at initiation and length of restriction. Poult. Sci. 71:440-447.
  8. Henken, M., A. M. Scarrsberg and W. van der Hel. 1983. The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism of the young chicken. 4. Effect of environmental temperature on some aspects of energy and protein metabolism. Poult. Sci. 62:59-67.
  9. Dale, N. M. and H. L. Fuller. 1980. Effect of diet composition on feed intake and growth of chicks under heat stress. II. Constant vs. cyclic temperatures. Poult. Sci. 59:1434-1441.
  10. Wiernusz, C. J. and R. G. Teeter. 1996. Acclimation effects on fed and fasted broiler thermobalance during thermoneutral and high ambient temperature exposure. Br. Poult. Sci. 37:677-687.
  11. Munns, P. L. and S. J. Lamont. 1991. Effects of age and immunization interval on the anamnestic response to T-celldependent and T-cell-independent antigens in chickens. Poult. Sci. 70:2371-2374.
  12. Eberhart, D. E. and K. W. Washburn. 1993a. Variation in body temperature response of naked neck and normally feathered chickens to heat stress. Poult. Sci. 72:1385-1390.
  13. National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  14. Marder, J. 1973. Temperature regulation in the Bedouin fowl (Gallus domesticus). Physiol. Zool. 47:180-189.
  15. Bollengier-Lee, S., P. E. Williams and C. G. Whithead. 1999. Optimal dietary concentration of vitamin E for alleviating the effect of heat stress on egg production in laying hens. Br. Poult. Sci. 40:102-107.
  16. Yahav, S., A. Shamay, G. Horev, D. Bar-Ilan, O. Genina and M. Friedman-Einat. 1997. Effect of acquisition of improved thermotolerance on the induction of heat shock proteins in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 76:1428-1434. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.10.1428
  17. Givisiez, P. E., J. A. Ferro, M. I. Ferro, S. N. Kronka, E. Decuypere and M. Macari. 1999. Hepatic concentration of heat shock protein 70 kD (Hsp70) in broilers subjected to different thermal treatments. Br. Poult. Sci. 40:292-296.
  18. Arad, Z., E. Moskovitis and J. Marder. 1975. A preliminary study of egg productionand heat tolerance in a new breed of fowl (Leghorn${\times}$Bedouin). Poult. Sci. 54:780-783.
  19. May, J. D., J. W. Deaton and S. L. Branton. 1987. Body temperature of acclimated broilers during exposure to high temperature. Poult. Sci. 66:378-380.
  20. Zulkifli, I., E. A. Dunnington, W. B. Gross and P. B. Siegel. 1994. Food restriction early or later in life and its effect on adaptability, disease resistance, and immunocompetence of heat stressed dwarf and nondwarf chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 35:203-214.
  21. Cahaner, A. and F. R. Leenstra. 1992. Effects of high temperature on growth and efficiency of male and female broilers from lines selected for high weight gain, favourable feed conversion and high or low fat content. Poult. Sci. 71:1237-1250.
  22. Eberhart, D. E. and K. W. Washburn. 1993b. Assessing the effects of the naked neck gene on chronic heat stress resistance in two genetic populations. Poult. Sci. 72:1391-1399.
  23. Plavnik, I. and S. Yahav. 1998. Effect of environmental temperature on broiler chickens subjected to growth restriction at an early age. Poult. Sci. 77:870-872.
  24. Teeter, R. G., M. O. Smith and C. J. Wiernusz. 1992. Research note: broiler acclimation to heat distress and feed intake effects on body temperature in birds exposed to thermoneutral and high ambient temperatures. Poult. Sci. 71:1101-1104.
  25. Yalcin, S., S. Ozkan, L. Turkmut and P. B. Siegel. 2001. Responses to heat stress in commercial and local broiler stocks. 1. Performance traits. Br. Poult. Sci. 42:49-152. https://doi.org/10.1080/713655061
  26. Gross, W. B. and P. B. Siegel. 1983. Evaluation of heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens. Avi. Dis. 27:972-979.
  27. Davis, G. S., F. W. Edens and C. R. Parkhurst. 1991. Computeraided heat acclimation in broiler cockerels. Poult. Sci. 70:302-306.
  28. Zulkifli, I., P. K. Liew, D. A. Israf, A. R. Omar and M. Hair-Bejo. 2003. Effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heterophil/lymphocyte ratios, heat shock protein 70 expression and body temperature of heat-stressed broiler chickens. J. Therm. Biol. 28:217-222.
  29. Mahmoud, K. Z. and F. W. Edens. 2003. Influence of selenium sources on age-related and mild heat stress-related changes of blood and liver glutathione redox cycle in broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 136:921-934.
  30. Kubikova, L L., P. Vyboh and L. Kostal. 2001. Behavioural, endocrine and metabolic effects of food restriction in broiler breeder hens. Acta Vet. Brno. 70:247-257.
  31. Teeter, R. G., M. O. Smith, F. N. Owens, S. C. Arp, S. Sangiah and J. E. Breazile. 1985. Chronic heat stress and relative humidity:Occurrence and treatment in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 64:1060-1064.
  32. Zulkifli, I., S. A. Mysahra and L. Z. Jin. 2004. Dietary supplementation of Betaine ($Betafin^{\circledR} $) and response to high temperature stress in Male broiler chickens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:244-249.

Cited by

  1. The effect of supplemental L-threonine on laying performance, serum free amino acids, and immune function of laying hens under high-temperature and high-humidity environmental climates vol.20, pp.3, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2010-00308
  2. The effects of chronic intermittent noise exposure on broiler chicken performance vol.82, pp.4, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2011.00877.x
  3. Evaluating the impact of excess dietary tryptophan on laying performance and immune function of laying hens reared under hot and humid summer conditions vol.53, pp.4, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2012.719149
  4. The effects of early-age thermal manipulation and daily short-term fasting on performance and body temperatures in broiler exposed to heat stress pp.09312439, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01330.x
  5. Classificação de características produtivas fenotípicas de diferentes raças de poedeiras através da mineração de dados vol.43, pp.1, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782012005000139
  6. The effects of supplemental threonine on performance, carcass characteristics, immune response and gut health of broilers in subtropics during pre-starter and starter period pp.09312439, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12991