- Volume 18 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Agricultural Systems for Saline Soil: The Potential Role of Livestock
- Masters, D.G. (CSIRO Livestock Industries, Centre for Environment and Life Sciences and CRC for Plant-based Management of Dryland Salinity) ;
- Norman, H.C. (CSIRO Livestock Industries, Centre for Environment and Life Sciences and CRC for Plant-based Management of Dryland Salinity) ;
- Barrett-Lennard, E.G. (Department of Agriculture of Western Australia and CRC for Plant-based Management of Dryland Salinity)
- Received : 2004.05.19
- Accepted : 2004.09.16
- Published : 2005.02.01
Human-induced soil salinity is becoming a major threat to agriculture across the world. This salinisation occurs in both irrigated and rain-fed agricultural zones with the highest proportions in the arid and semi-arid environments. Livestock can play an important role in the management and rehabilitation of this land. There are a range of plants that grow in saline soils and these have been used as animal feed. In many situations, animal production has been poor as a result of low edible biomass production, low nutritive value, depressed appetite, or a reduction in efficiency of energy use. Feeding systems are proposed that maximise the feeding value of plants growing on saline land and integrate their use with other feed resources available within mixed livestock and crop farming systems. Salt-tolerant pastures, particularly the chenopod shrubs, have moderate digestible energy and high crude protein. For this reason they represent a good supplement for poor quality pastures and crop residues. The use of salt-tolerant pasture systems not only provides feed for livestock but also may act as a bio-drain to lower saline water tables and improve the soil for growth of alternative less salt tolerant plants. In the longer term there are opportunities to identify and select more appropriate plants and animals for saline agriculture.
Ruminants;Salinity;Chenopod;Nutritive Value;Sodium Chloride;Feed Intake
- Benjamin, R. W., E. Oren, E. Katz and K. Becker. 1992. The apparent digestibility of Atriplex barclayana and its effect on nitrogen balance in sheep. Anim. Prod. 54:259-264.
- Casson, T. and B. E. Warren. 1994. Monitoring the diet of sheep grazing revegetated saline land. In: Productive Use and Rehabilitation of Saline Lands, 3rd National Conference, Echuca, Australia. pp. 130-133.
- Devendra, C. 2001. Small ruminants: imperatives for productivity enhancement improved livelihoods and rural growth - a review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1483-1496.
- FAO/AGL-Global network on integrated soil management for sustainable use of salt-affected land, 2000. Extent and causes of salt-affected soils in participating countries. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGL/agll/spush/topic2.htm#top.
- Nawaz, S. and S. H. Hanjra. 1993. The productivity of goats using different ratios of saltbush and kallar grass. In: Productive Use of Saline Land (N. Davidson and R. Galloway), Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Proceedings No 42, Canberra. pp. 85-87.
- Zhao, C., Y. Wang, Y. Song and B. Li. 2004. Biological drainage characteristics of alkalized desert soils in north-western China. J. Arid Environ. 56:1-9.
- Ferdowsian, R., D. J. Pannell and M. Lloyd. 2002. Explaining groundwater depths in saltland: impacts of saltbush, rainfall and time trends. In: Productive Use and Rehabilitation of Saline Lands, 8th National Conference, Fremantle, Australia. pp. 115-122.
- Rogers, M. E., A. D. Craig, S. J. Bennett, C. V. Malcolm, A. J. Brown, W. S. Semple, T. D. Colmer, P. M. Evans, S. J. Hughes, R. Munns, P. G. H. Nichols, G. Sweeney, B. S. Dear and E. M. 2003. Fodder plants for salt-affected areas of southern Australia. CRC for Plant-based Management of Dryland Salinity, Perth, Australia.
- Chriyaa, A., K. J. Moore and S. S. Waller. 1997. Intake, digestion, and nitogen balance of sheep fed shrub foliage and medic pods as a supplement to wheat straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 65:183-196.
- Hemsley, J. A., J. P. Hogan and R. H. Weston. 1975. Effect of high intake of sodium chloride on the utilisation of a protein concentrate by sheep. II Digestion and absorption of organic matter and electrolytes. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 26:715-727.
- Dann, P. R. and J. B. Coombe. 1987. Utilization of fodder crops and crop residues. In: Temperate Pastures: Their Production, Use and Management, (Ed. J. L. Wheeler, C. J. Pearson and G. E. Robards), Australian Wool Corporation/CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. pp. 517-525.
- Delgado, C., M. Rosegrant, H. Steinfeld, S. Ehui and C. Courbois. 1999. Livestock to 2020. The next food revolution. Food, Agriculture and the Environment. Discussion paper 28. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, USA.
- Chhabra, R. and N. P. Thakur. 1998. Lysimeter study on the use of biodrainage to control waterlogging and salinization in (canal) irrigated arid/semi-arid environment. Irrig. Drain. Syst. 12:265-288.
- El Aich, A. and A. Waterhouse. 1999. Small ruminants in environmental conservation. Small Rumin. Res. 34:271-287.
- Morecombe, P. W., G. E. Young and K. A. Boase. 1996. Grazing a saltbush (Atriplex-Maireana) stand by Merino wethers to fill the 'autumn feed-gap' experienced in the Western Australian wheat belt. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 36:641-647.
- Devendra, C. and D. Thomas. 2002. Crop-animal systems in Asia: importance of livestock and characterisation of agro-ecological zones. Agric. Syst. 71:5-15.
- Slavich, P. G., K. S. Smith, S. D. Tyerman and G. R. Walker. 1999. Water use of grazed salt bush plantations with saline watertable. Agric. Water Manage. 39:169-185.
- Barrett-Lennard, E. G., C. V. Malcolm and A. D. Bathgate. 2003. Saltland Pastures in Australia. 2nd Edition. Land & Water Australia, Canberra, Australia. p. 176.
- Hatton, T. J. and R. A. Nulsen. 1999. Towards acheiving functional ecosystem mimicry with respect to water cycling in southern Australian agriculture. Agroforest. Syst. 45:203-214.
- Norman, H. C., R. A. Dynes and D. G. Masters. 2003. Botanical diversity within 2 saline ecosystems in southwestern Australia. In: Proceedings of the 11th Australian Agronomy Conference, Geelong, Australia.
- Warren, B. E. and T. Casson. 1992. Performance of sheep grazing salt tolerant forages on revegetated saltland. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 19:237.
- Le Houérou, H. N. 1992. The role of saltbushes (Atriplex spp.) in arid land rehabilitation in the Mediterranean Basin: a review. Agroforest. Syst. 18:107-148.
- Warren, B. E., T. Casson and D. W. Abbott. 1996. A preliminary study of sheep production from pastures on waterlogged and moderately saline land. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 21:177-180
- Devendra, C. and C. C. Sevilla. 2002. Availability and use of feed resources in crop-animal systems in Asia. Agric. Syst. 71:59-73.
- Gihad, E. A. and H. M. El Shaer. 1994. Utilization of halophytes by livestock on rangelands. Problems and prospects. In: Halophytes as a Resource for Livestock and for Rehabilitation of Degraded Land, (Ed. V. Squires and A. T. Ayoub), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands. pp. 77-96.
- Thompson, A. N., P. M. Evans, D. J. Gordon and A. H. Byron. 2001. A case study for a highly productive salt tolerant forage legume. 2. Sheep production from Melilotus alba. In: Productive Use and Rehabilitation of Saline Land. 7th National Conference, Launceston, Australia. pp. 172-173.
- Arieli, A., E. Naim, R. W. Benjamin and D. Pasternak. 1989. The effect of feeding saltbush and sodium chloride on energy metabolism in sheep. Anim. Prod. 49:451-457.
- Ghassemi, F., A. J. Jakeman and H. A. Nix. 1995. Salinisation of Land and Water Resources. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. p. 526.
- Masters, D. G., H. C. Norman and R. A. Dynes. 2001. Opportunities and limitations for animal production from saline land. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14, Special issue: 199-211.
- Grime, J. P. 1973. Competitive exclusion in herbaceous vegetation. Nature 242:344-347. https://doi.org/10.1038/242344a0
- Bell, R. W., N. J. Schofield, I. C. Loh and M. A. Bari. 1990. Groundwater response to reforestation in the Darling Range of Western Australia. J. Hydrol. 115:297-317.
- Mui, N. T., I. Ledin, P. Udén and D. V. Binh. 2002. The foliage of Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) as a substitute for a rice bran-soyabean concentrate in the diet of lactating goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:45-54.
- Weston, R. H., J. P. Hogan and J. A. Hemsley. 1970. Some aspects of the digestion of Atriplex nummularia (saltbush) by sheep. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 8:517-521.
- Marai, I. F. M., A. A. Habeeb and T. H. Kamal. 1995. Response of livestock to excess sodium intake. In: Sodium in Agriculture, (Ed. C. J. C. Phillips and P. C. Chiy), Chalcombe Publications, Canterbury. pp. 173-180.
- Clarke, C. J., R. J. George, R. W. Bell and T. J. Hatton. 2002. Dryland salinity in south-western Australia; its origins, remedies and future research directions. Aust. J. Soil Res. 40:93-113.
- Wilson, A. D. 1966. The tolerance of sheep to sodium chloride in food or drinking water. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 17:503-514. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9660503
- ) in autumn vol.47, pp.8, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1071/EA06149
- Effect of supplementation with grain, hay or straw on the performance of weaner Merino sheep grazing old man (Atriplex nummularia) or river (Atriplex amnicola) saltbush vol.63, pp.2, 2008, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2007.00623.x
- )-based pasture vol.49, pp.11, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1071/EA08230
- Effects of soil-salt accumulation on sheep body weight in Mongolian grassland: evidence of excess salt in plant and wool samples vol.11, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11355-014-0266-7
- High soil sodicity and alkalinity cause transient salinity in south-western Australia vol.54, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1071/SR15052
- on wool production, mineral balance and enteric methane emissions of Merino sheep pp.01425242, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/gfs.12314
- Recent research of feeding practices and the nutrition of lactating dairy goats vol.47, pp.1, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2019.1580585