- Volume 18 Issue 6
DOI QR Code
Effects of Acute Changes in the Energy and Protein Intake Levels over the Short-term on the Maternal Milk Amino Acid Concentrations in Lactating Mares
- Matsui, A. (Equine Science Division, Hidaka Training and Research Center, Japan Racing Association) ;
- Inoue, Y. (Equine Science Division, Hidaka Training and Research Center, Japan Racing Association) ;
- Asai, Y. (Equine Science Division, Hidaka Training and Research Center, Japan Racing Association)
- Received : 2004.05.19
- Accepted : 2004.12.21
- Published : 2005.06.01
This study was designed to test the effects of changes in energy and protein intake levels on the maternal milk amino acid concentrations over the short-term in lactating mares. Three lactating mares were enrolled for the study 7 weeks after parturition. A low-energy and low-protein diet (LEP) was administered during the first week of the study, followed by administration of a high-energy and high-protein diet (HEP), again for a week (day 1 to day 7), and milk was sampled thrice daily at intervals of 8 h during the study period. The mean amino acid concentrations in the maternal milk, except for those of proline, serine and valine, were significantly higher in the HEP feeding period than during the LEP feeding period (p<0.05). The sum of the concentrations of all the amino acids (TAA) in the maternal milk samples during the HEP and LEP feeding periods was 1,644.9
- Anon. 1989. Nutrient Requirements of Horses. 5th edn., National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
- Asai, Y., A. Matsui, T. Osawa, M. Kawai and S. Kondo. 1999. Digestible energy expenditure in grazing activity of growing horses. Equine Vet. J. 30(Supp.):490-492.
- Baker, L. D., J. D. Ferguson and W. Chalupa. 1995. Responses in urea and true protein of milk to different protein feeding schemes for dairy cows. J. Dairy. Res. 74:2424-2434.
- Doreau, M. and S. Boulot. 1989. Recent knowledge on mare milk production. Lives. Prod. Sci. 22:213-235.
- Doreau, M., S. Boulot, J. P. Barlet and P. Patureau-Mirand. 1990. Yield and composition of milk from lactating mares: effect of lactation stage and individual differences. J. Dairy Res. 57:449-457.
- Doreau, M., S. Boulot and W. Martin-Rosset. 1991. Effect of parity and physiological state on intake, milk production and blood parameters in lactating mares differing in body size. Anim. Prod. 53:111-118.
- Pine, A. P., N. S. Jessop and J. D. Oldham. 1994a. Maternal protein reserves and their influence on lactational performance in rats. 3. The effects of dietary protein restriction and stage of lactation on milk composition. 1994. Br. J. Nutr. 72:815-830.
- Staniar, W. B., D. S. Kronfeld, J. A. Wilson, L. A. Lawrence, W. L. Cooper and P. A. Harris. 2001. Growth of thoroughbreds fed a low-protein supplement fortified with lysine and threonine. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2143-2151.
- Wang, A. S., D. E. Jan, K. J. Chen, D. W. Yang and Y. K. Fan. 2004. Dietary supplementation of fat increased milk fat percentage without affecting ruminal characteristics in Holstein cows in a warm tropical environment. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:213-220.
- Bovera, F., S. Calabro, M. I. Cutrignelli and T. Di Lella. 2002. Effect of dietary energy and protein contents of buffalo milk yield and quality during advanced actation period. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. 15: 675-681.
- Anon. 1998. Japanese Feeding Standard for Horse. Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association. Animal Media Co., Ltd. Tokyo. pp. 12-13.
- Gibbs, P. G., G. D. Potter, R. W. Blake and W. C. McMullan. 1982. Milk production of quarter horse mares during 150 days of lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 53:496-499.
- Van Soest, P. J. 1963. Use of detergents in the analysis fibrous feeds Ⅱ. A rapid method for the determination of fiber and ligunine. J. Ass. Agric. Chem. 6:829-835.
- Matsui, A., Y. Inoue and Y. Asai. 2003. Circadian variation of the amino acid concentration in horse's milk. J. Equine Sci. 14:101-109.
- Takagi, H., Y. Hashimoto, C. Yonemochi, Y. Asai, T. Yoshida, Y. Ohta, T. Ishibashi and R. Watanabe. 2002. Digestibility of Nutrients of Roughages Determined by Total Feces Collection Method in Thoroughbreds. J. Equine Sci. 13:23-27.
- Sutton, J. D., W. H. Broster, E. Schuller, T. Smith and D. J. Napper. 1977. Long-term effect of level of intake and diet composition on the performance of lactating dairy cows. 3. Milk composition and rumen fermentation. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 36:147.
- SAS Institute Inc. 2002. JMP, A Bisiness Unit of SAS. Version 5, First edition, SAS Institute Inc., SAS Campus Drive, Cary, NC27513, USA.
- Penke, B., R. Ferenczi and K. Kovacs. 1974. A new acid hydrolysis method for determining tryptophan in peptides and proteins. Anal. Biochem. 60:45-50.
- Powers, W. J., H. H. Van Horn, B. Jr. Harris and C. J. Wilcox. 1995. Effects of variable sources of distillers dried grains plus solubles on milk yield and composition. J. Dairy Sci. 78:388-396.
- Oftedal, O. T., H. F. Hintz and H. F. Schryver. 1983. Lactation in the horse: milk composition and intake by foals. J. Nutr. 113:2096-2106.
- Preissinger, W., F. J. Schwarz and M. Kirchgessner. 1998. The effect of size reduction of corn silage on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of cows. Arch. Tierernahr. 51:327-339. German.
- Le Boucher, J., C. Charret, C. Coudray-Lucas, J. Giboudeau and L. Cynober. 1997. Amino acid determination in biological fluids by automated ion-exchange chromatography: performance of Hitachi L-8500A. Clin. Chem. 43:1421-1428.
- AOAC. 1999. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th edn.. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Maryland.
- Doreau, M., S. Boulot, W. Martin-Rosset and J. Robelin. 1986. Relationship between nutrient intake, growth and body composition of the nursing foal. Reprod. Nutr. Develop. 26:683-690.
- Glade, M. J. and N. K. Luba. 1990. Benefits to foals of feeding soybean meal to lactating broodmares. Equine. Vet. Sci. 10:422-428.
- Newport, M. J. and M. J. Henschel. 1985. Growth, digestion, and protein metabolism in neonatal pigs given diets containing whey as the predominant or only source of milk protein. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 4:639-644.
- Khan, A. G., Atiya azim and I. H. Miza. 2002. Response of feeding amino acids supplemented cottonseed meal on growth performance and digestibility of early weaned cow calves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:184-187.