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The Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid Oil and Soybean Oil on the Expression of Lipid Metabolism Related mRNA in Pigs

  • Liu, B.H. (Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University) ;
  • Wang, Y.C. (Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University) ;
  • Kuo, C.F. (Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Nutraceutical Biotechnology, Shih Chien University) ;
  • Cheng, W.M. (Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University) ;
  • Shen, T.F. (Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University) ;
  • Ding, Shih-Torng (Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University)
  • Received : 2004.11.04
  • Accepted : 2005.03.21
  • Published : 2005.10.01

Abstract

To study the acute effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, $C_{22:6}$) on the expression of adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1) mRNA in pig tissues, weaned, crossbred pigs (28 d of age) were fed with either 10% (on as-fed basis) tallow (high stearic acid), soybean oil (high linoleic acid), or high DHA algal oil for 2 d. The plasma and liver DHA reflected the composition of the diet. The adipose tissue and skeletal muscle DHA did not reflect the diet in the short term feeding. The results also showed that the diet containing 10% algal DHA oil significantly decreased the total plasma cholesterol (39%) and triacylglycerol (TG; 46%) in the pigs. Soybean oil significantly decreased plasma TG (13.7%; p<0.05), but did not have an effect on plasma cholesterol. The data indicate that different dietary fatty acid compositions have different effects on plasma lipids. The ADD1 mRNA was decreased (p<0.05) in the liver of DHA oil-treated pigs compared with the tallow-treated pigs. The diets did not have significant effect on the ADD1 mRNA in adipose tissue. Addition of algal DHA oil in the diet increased acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) mRNA concentration in the liver, suggesting that dietary DHA treatment increases peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in the liver. However, dietary soybean oil supplementation did not affect mRNA concentrations of ADD1 or ACO in the tissues of pigs. Because ADD1 increases the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis, and ACO is able to promote fatty acid oxidation, feeding DHA oil may change the utilization of fatty acids through changing the expression of ADD1 and ACO. Therefore, feeding pigs with high DHA may lead to lower body fat deposition.

Keywords

Acyl-CoA Oxidase;Adipocyte Determination and Differentiation-dependent Factor 1;Docosahexaenoic acid;Fatty Acid;Pig

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Science Council

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