Effects of Substituting Concentrates with Dried Leftover Food on Growth and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers

  • Paek, B.H. (National Livestock Research Institute, RDA) ;
  • Kang, S.W. (National Livestock Research Institute, RDA) ;
  • Cho, Y.M. (National Livestock Research Institute, RDA) ;
  • Cho, W.M. (National Livestock Research Institute, RDA) ;
  • Yang, C.J. (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sunchon National University) ;
  • Yun, S.G. (National Livestock Research Institute, RDA)
  • Received : 2003.09.19
  • Accepted : 2004.06.16
  • Published : 2005.02.01


This study was conducted to determine the optimum substitution level of dried leftover food (DLF) in formula feed for Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) steers. A total of forty growing steers were assigned to 5 treatments based on substitution level of DLF (at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% level of formula feed). The experiment was carried out with growing steers from 6 months of age to 24 months of age. Average daily gain (ADG) was not affected by DLF substitution level up to 75% of formula feed. However ADG decreased at 100% substitution level. Daily feed intakes were similar among treatments but the amount of feed per 1 kg gain increased with increasing substitution level of DLF. Dressing percentage was around 62% in all treatments without any significant differences. Proportion of quality beef higher than grade 1 was the greatest from animals fed 25% substitution level of DLF. Economic efficiency for Hanwoo steer operator was the highest with 50% substitution level of DLF.


Hanwoo;Dried Leftover Food;Growth Performance;Feed Intake;Carcass Characteristics


  1. Cho, Y. M., G. W. Lee, J. S. Jang, I. S. Shin, K. M. Myung, K. S. Choi, I. H. Bae and C. J. Yang. 2004a. Effects of feeding dried leftover food on growth and body composition of broiler chicks. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:386-393.
  2. Gijen, H. J., T. T. H. Schoenmarks, C. G. M. Caeteling and G. D. Vogels. 1988. Anaerobic degradation of paper mill sludge in a two phase digestion containing rumen microorganism and colonized polyurethane form. Biotechnology letter. Vol(2):61-66.
  3. Hong, S. K., B. H. Baek, H. S. Kang and W. M. Cho. 1996. Effects of restricted feeding and market weights on the carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Korean J. Anim. Sci. 38(3):215-230.
  4. Karalazos, A. and H. Swan. 1976. Molasses and its byproduct, In (Ed. H. Swan and L. lewis). Feed and Energy Sources for Livestock. Butterworths London. pp. 29-46.
  5. Myer, R. O., T. A. DeBusk, J. H. Brendemuhl and M. E. Rivas. 1994. Initial assessment of dehydrated edible restaurant waste (DERW) as a potential feedstuffs for swine. Florida swine Res. Rep. No. ANSSW. 94. Animal Sci. Dept., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. pp. 44-51.
  6. NLRI. 1999. National Livestock Research Institute. 1999. The Related laws for food waste as a feed and industrialization. Utility technology of food waste as a feed. pp. 117-133.
  7. NRC. 1994. Nutrient requirement of beef cattle. 9th. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.
  8. Summers, J. D., G. K. Macleod and W. C. Warner. 1980. Chemical composition of culinary wastes and their potential as a feed for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology 5(3):205-214.
  9. Tadtiyant, C., J. J. Lyons and J. M. Vandepopulience. 1988. Utilization of extruded poultry farm motalities and feathers in broiler starter diet. Poult. Sci. 68(Suppl. 1):145(Abstr.).
  10. Waste Recycling Council. October 30, 1998. Wonju, Korea. pp. 135-156.
  11. RDA. 1988. Rural Development Administration. Composition of Korean Feedstuffs. p. 56.
  12. Cho, Y. M., I. S. Shin and C. J. Yang. 2004b. Effects of feeding dried leftover food on productivity of laying hens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:518-522.
  13. AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th Ed. Association of official analytical chemists. Washington, DC.
  14. Lee, K. H. 1998. Evaluation of nutritive value of food waste as a feed. Symposium for Food Waste as a Feed. pp. 113-128.
  15. McClure, K. E., E. W. Klosterman and R. R. Johnson. 1970. Palatability and digestibility of processed garbage fed to ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 31:249(Abstr.).
  16. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometric. 11:1.
  17. McKnight, D. R., G. S. Hopper, L. A. Drevjany and W. E. Pollock. 1979. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on all concentrate rations fed Holstein steers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 59:805-807.
  18. Lee, J. P., S. C. Park and S. W. Rhee. 1997. The effect of ammonia and sodium chloride on the anaerobic degradation of food waste. J. KSEE. 19(9):1185-1192.
  19. Rivas, M. E., J. H. Brendemuhl, R. O. Myer and D. D. Johnson. 1994. Digestibility by swine and microbiological assessment of dehydrated restaurant waste. Res. Rep. A1-1994-3. College of Agric., Florida Agric. Exp. Sta., Univ. of Florida, Gainsville.
  20. Kil, J. Y., H. J. Kim, D. H. Lee, S. B. Cho, S. R. Lee and W. J. Maeng. 1999. Study on degradation pattern of nutrients by food waste in the rumen. Proc. of the 8th Annual Congress of Korean Society of Animal Science. p. 183. June 25, 1999, Chunchon, Korea.
  21. Yu, D. J. 1998. Reasonableness and promotion plan of food waste as a feed. Proc. of the Annual Congress of Korea Organic

Cited by

  1. Development of Rapid Diagnostic Kit for Identification of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) Brand Meat by Detecting BIO-TAG vol.34, pp.3, 2014,