Correlation of Air Pollutants and Thermal Environment Factors in a Confined Pig House in Winter

Choi, Hong L.;Kim, Ki Y.;Kim, Hyunook

  • 투고 : 2004.07.12
  • 심사 : 2004.12.27
  • 발행 : 2005.04.01


Optimal management of indoor air quality in a confined pig house, especially in winter, is indispensable for preventing infectious respiratory disease to workers and animals. This study was performed to elucidate the correlation of aerial contaminants and climate factors in a confinement. It was observed that indoor air contaminants ion in the confinement was the highest at 2:00-5:00 pm in a day, followed by 8:00-11:00 pm and 8:00-11:00 am. This was attributed to the increase of pig activities in the afternoon. The concentration of total dust and total airborne bacteria was found to have a significant correlation with temperature and relative humidity (p<0.05). Correlation of total dust and total airborne bacteria, total dust and ammonia, and total dust and odor were shown statistically significant at 95% confidence level. In conclusion, temperature and total dust concentration correlated significantly with all the parameters except for hydrogen sulfide ($H_2S$). This could be explained by the fact the dryness of pig feces by increase of interior temperature and resuspension of feed deposited on the floor by the pig activity, resulted in high generation of dust which adsorbed and carried the airborne bacteria and odor compounds in a confined pig house. It was proved that the adsorptive capacity of dust with ammonia ($NH_3$) was higher than that with hydrogen sulfide ($H_2S$).


Total Dust;Total Airborne Bacteria;Odor;Ammonia;Hydrogen Sulfide


  1. Bundy, D. S. and T. E. Hazen. 1975. Dust levels in pig confinement systems associated with different feeding methods. Transactions of the ASAE. 18(1):137-139, 144.
  2. Carpenter, G. A., A. W. Cooper and G. E. Wheeler. 1986. The effect of air filtration on air hygiene and pig performance in early-weaner accommodation. Animal production. 43:505-515.
  3. Chang, C. W., H. Chung, C. F. Huang and H. J. Su. 2001. Exposure assessment to airborne endotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in open style pig houses. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 45(6):457-465.
  4. Coleman, R. N., J. J. R. Feddes and B. S. West. 1991. What is odour and the potential for its control? In: Proceedings Western Branch Meeting. Canadian Society of Animal Production, Chilliwack (Abstr.).
  5. Curtis, S. E., J. G. Drummond, K. W. Kelley, D. J. Grunloh, V. J. Meares, H. W. Norton and A. H. Jensen. 1975. Diurnal and annual fluctuations of aerial bacterial and dust levels in confined pig houses. J. Anim. Sci. 41(5):1502-1511.
  6. Hsia L. C. and G. H. Lu. 2004. The effect of high environmental temperature and nutrient density on pig performance, confromation and carcass characteristics under unrsticted feeding system. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(2):250-258
  7. Janni, K. A., P. T. Redig, J. Newman and J. Mulhausen. 1984. Respirable aerosol concentrations in turkey grower buildings. ASAE paper No. 84-4522, St. Joseph, MI.
  8. Robertson, A. M. and H. Galbraith. 1971. Effect of Ventilation on the Gas Concentration in a Part-stalled Piggery. R and D Studies 1, Scottish Farm Buildings Investigation Unit, pp. 17-28.
  9. SAS. 1996. User's Guide: Statistics, Version 6.0 ed., SAS Inst., Inc.,Cary, NC. USA.
  10. Straubel, H. 1981. Elektro-optische Messung von Aerosolen. Technisches Messen. 48:199-210.
  11. Thorne, P. S., M. S. Niekhaefer, P. Whitten and K. J. Donham. 1992. Comparison of bioaerosol sampling methods in barns housing pig. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. Aug, pp. 2543-2551.
  12. Bruce, J. M. 1981. Ventilation and temperature control criteria for pigs, In: Environmental Aspects of Housing for Animal Production. Butterworths, London, pp. 197-216.
  13. Hsia L. C.2004. Effect of food deprivation length of pair house pigs on the running speed and feeding activity in solidatary and social conditions. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(2):271-277
  14. Elliot, L. F., T. M. McCalla and J. A. Deshazer. 1976. Bacteria in the air of housed pig units. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 32(2):270-273.
  15. Barth, C. L., L. F. Elliot and S. W. Melvin. 1984. Using odor control technology to support animal agriculture. Transactions of the ASAE. 27:859-864.
  16. Crook, B., J. F. Robertson, G. S. Travers, E. M. Botheroyd, J. Lacey and M. D. Topping. 1991. Airborne dust, ammonia, microorganisms and antigens in pig confinement houses and the respiratory health of exposed farm workers. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 52:271-279.
  17. MWPS. 1988. Pig housing and equipment handbook, MWPS-8. Midwest Plan Service. Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.
  18. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1994. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method. Cincinnati, Ohio, 4th Ed.
  19. Henschler, D. 1990. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und biologische Arbeitsstoffoleranzwerte. Mitteilung der Senatskommission zur Prufung Gesundheitsschadlicher Arbeitsstoffe; 26. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Germany.
  20. Shurson, J., M. Whitney and R. Nicolai. 1997. Nutritional manipulation of pig diets to reduce hydrogen sulfide emissions. Extension service, Univ. of Minnesota.
  21. Bruce, J. M. and M. Sommer. 1987. Environmental aspects of respiratory disease in intensive pig and poultry houses, Including the implications for human health. Proceedings EC Meeting Aberdeen, 29-30 October 1986. EC Commission Publications, Brussels.
  22. Marielena M. L. and L. C. Hsia.2004. Effect of season, hosing and physiological stage on drinking and other related behavior of dairy cows (Bos taurus) Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(10):1417-1429
  23. Olson, D. K. and S. M. Bark. 1996. Health hazards affecting the animal confinement farm worker. Am. Assoc. Occup. Health Nurse J. 44:198-204.
  24. Hartung, J. 1986. Dust in livestock buildings as a carrier of odours. In: (Ed. V. C. Nielsen, J. H. Voorburg and P. L'Hermite), Odour Prevention and control of organic sludge and livestock farmings. Elsevier, London, pp. 321-332.
  25. Seedorf, J., J. Hartung, M. Schroder, K. H. Linkert, V. R. Phillips, M. R. Holden, S. W. Sneath, J. L. Short, R. P. White, S. Pederson, H. Takai, J. O. Johnsen, J. H. M. Metz, P. W. G. Koerkamp, G. H. Uenk and C. M. Wathes. 1998. Concentrations and emissions of airborne endotoxins and microorganisms in livestock buildings in Norther Europe. J. Agric. Engin. Res. 70:97-109.
  26. Stombaugh, D. P., H. S. Teague and W. L. Roler. 1969. Effect of atmospheric ammonia in the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 28:844-847.
  27. Hinz, T. and K. H. Krause. 1988. Emission of respiratory biological-mixed-aerosols from animal houses, In: Environmental aspects of respiratory disease in intensive pig and poultry houses, including the implications for human health, pp. 81-89. Proceedings: EEC-Meeting Aberdeen, 29-30 October, 1986.
  28. Bottcher, R. W. 2001. An environmental nuisance: odor concentrated and transported by dust. Chemical Senses 23:327-331.
  29. Nordstrom, G. A. and J. B. McQuitty. 1976. Manure Gases in the Animal Environment. Department of Agricultural and Engineering, University of Alberta.
  30. Takai, H., S. Pederson, J. O. Johnsen, J. H. M. Metz, P. W. G. Koerkamp, G. H. Uenk, V. R. Phillips, M. R. Holden, R. W. Sneath, J. L. Short, R. P. White, J. Hartung, J. Seedorf, M. Schroder, K. H. Linkert and C. M. Wathes. 1998. Concentrations and emissions of airborne dust in livestock buildings in Norther Europe. J. Agric. Enginee. Res. 70:59-77.
  31. Clark, S., R. Rylander and L. Larsson. 1983. Airborne bacteria, endotoxin and fungi in dust in poultry and pig confinement buildings. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 44:537-541.
  32. Gustafsson, G. 1994. Efficiency of different dust reducing methods in pig houses. Proceedings of the 12th CIGR-Conference, 5-8 September, 1994. Milano, CIGR, Merelbeke, Belgium, pp. 551-558.
  33. Donham, K., L. J. Scallon and W. Popendorf. 1986. Characterization of dusts collected from pig confinement buildings. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 47:404-410.
  34. Pedersen, S. 1993. Time-based variation in airborne dust in respect to animal activity. Proceedings on Livestock Environment. pp. 718-726. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  35. Kim, K., H. L. Choi, H. Ko and C. N. Kim. 2004. Comparison of Analysis Methods of Ammonia from Pig Production Facilities. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(11):1608-1614
  36. Verstegen, M. W. A., W. Van Der Hel, A. A. Jongebreur and G. Enneman. 1976. The influence of ammonia and humidity on activity and energy balance data in groups of pigs. Zeitschrift fur Tierphysiologie, Tierernahrung and Futtermittelkunde. 37:225-263.
  37. Aarnink, A. J. A., P. F. M. M. Roelofs, H. Ellen and H. Gunnink. 1999. Dust sources in animal houses. Proceedings on dust control in animal production facilities. Department of Agricultural Engineering, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Horsens, Denmark, pp. 34-40.
  38. Noblet, J., H. Fortune, S. Dubois and V. Henry. 1989. Nouvelles bases d'estimation des teneur en energie digestible metabolisable et nette des aliments pourle porc. INRA, Paris, pp. 1-106.
  39. van't Klooster, C. E., P. F. M. M. Foelofs and P. A. M. Gijsen. 1993. Positioning air inlet and air outlet to reduce dust exposure in pig buildings. Proceedings on Livestock Environment Ⅳ, pp. 754-761. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.