Population Structure and Genetic Bottleneck Analysis of Ankleshwar Poultry Breed by Microsatellite Markers

  • Pandey, A.K. (National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources) ;
  • Kumar, Dinesh (National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources) ;
  • Sharma, Rekha (National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources) ;
  • Sharma, Uma (National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources) ;
  • Vijh, R.K. (National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources) ;
  • Ahlawat, S.P.S. (National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources)
  • Received : 2004.10.07
  • Accepted : 2005.02.19
  • Published : 2005.07.01


Genetic variation at 25 microsatellite loci, population structure, and genetic bottleneck hypothesis were examined for Ankleshwar poultry population found in Gujrat, India. The estimates of genetic variability such as effective number of alleles and gene diversities revealed substantial genetic variation frequently displayed by microsatellite markers. The average polymorphism across the studied loci and the expected gene diversity in the population were 6.44 and 0.670${\pm}$0.144, respectively. The population was observed to be significantly differentiated into different groups, and showed fairly high level of inbreeding (f = 0.240${\pm}$0.052) and global heterozygote deficit. The bottleneck analysis indicated the absence of genetic bottleneck in the past. The study revealed that the Ankleshwar poultry breed needs appropriate genetic management for its conservation and improvement. The information generated in this study may further be utilized for studying differentiation and relationships among different Indian poultry breeds.


Ankleshwar;Bottleneck;Genetic Diversity;Microsatellites;Poultry


  1. Chenyambuga, S. W., O. Hanotte, J. Hirbo, P. C. Watts, S. J. Kemp, G. C. Kifaro, P. S. Gwakisa, P. H. Petersen and J. E. O. Rege. 2004. Genetic characterization of indigenous goats of Sub-Saharan Africa using microsatellite DNA markers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:445-452.
  2. Cho, G. J. and B. W. Cho1. 2004. Microsatellite DNA typing using 16 markers for parentage verification of the Korean native horse. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:750-754.
  3. FAO. 1995. Global project for the maintenance of domestic animal genetic diversity (MoDAD)-Draft project formulation report, FAO, Rome, Italy.
  4. GAU Report. 2003. Annual Progress Report-2003-04, Network Project on Survey of Poultry Genetic Resources: Ankleshwar poultry, by College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Gujarat Agriculture University, Anand-388 110, INDIA.
  5. Goudet, J. 1995. FSTAT (version1.2): A computer programme to calculate F-statistics. J. Hered. 86:485-486.
  6. Kimura, M. and J. W. Crow. 1964. The number of alleles that can be maintained in a finite population. Genet. 49:725-738.
  7. Lewontin, R. C. 1972. The apportionment of human diversity. Evol. Biol. 6:381-98.
  8. Li, C. C. 1976. First course in Population Genetics, Boxwood Press, Pacific grove, California.
  9. Pandey, A. K., M. S. Tantia, D. Kumar, B. Mishra, P. Chaudhary and R. K. Vijh. 2002 Microsatellite analysis of three poultry breeds of India, Asian -Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:1536-1542.
  10. Sambrook, J., E. F. Fritsch and T. Maniatis. 1989. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual 2nd ed, Cold spring Harbour, Cold Spring Laboratory Press, NY.
  11. Sun, W., H. Chang, Z. J. Ren, Z. P. Yang, R. Q. Geng, S. X. Lu, L. Du and K. Tsunoda. 2004. Genetic differentiation between sheep and goats based on microsatellite DNA. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:583-587.
  12. Wimmer, K., S. Ponsuksili, T. Hardge, A. Valle-Zarate, P. K. Mathur and P. Horst. 2000. Genetic distinctness of African, Asian and South American local chickens. Animal Genetics 31:159-165.
  13. Li, Changchun, Z. Wang, B. Liu, S. Yang, Z. Zhu, B. Fan, M. Y. Shuhong Zhao and K. Li. 2004. Evaluation of the genetic relationship among ten Chinese indigenous pig breeds with twenty-six microsatellite markers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17: 441-444.
  14. Di Rienzo, A., A. C. Peterson, J. C. Garza, A. M. Valdes, M. Slatkin, and N. B. Freimer. 1994. Mutational process of simple-sequence repeat loci in human populations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91:3166-3170.
  15. Wang, X., H. H. Cao, S. M. Geng and H. B. Li. 2004. Genetic diversity of 10 indigenous pig breeds in China by using microsatellite markers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1219-1222.
  16. Ohta, T. and M. Kimura. 1973. A model of mutation appropriate to estimate the number of electrophoretically detectable alleles in a finite population. Genet. Res. Camb. 22:201-204.
  17. Nei, M. 1973. Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70:3321-3323.
  18. Levene, H. 1949. On a matching problem arising in genetics. Ann. Math. Stat. 20:91-94.
  19. Christiansen, F. B., O. Frydenberg, A. O. Gyldenholm and V. Simonsen. 1974. Genetics of Zoarces populations VI. Further evidence, based on age group samples, of a heterozygote deficit EST III polymorphism. Heriditas. 77:225-236.
  20. Crooijmans, R. P. M. A., J. J. Van der Poel and M. A. M. Groenen. 1995. Functional genes mapped on the chicken genome. Anim. Genet. 26:73-78.
  21. Pamilo, P. 1985. Effect of inbreeding on genetic relatedness. Hereditas. 103:195-200.
  22. Yeh, Francis C., R-C. Yang, Timothy B.J. Boyle, Z-H. Ye and Judy X. Mao. 1999. POPGENE version 1.32, the user-friendly shareware for population genetic analysis. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Centre, University of Alberta, Canada. (
  23. Luikart, G. and J. M. Cornuet. 1998. Empirical evaluation of a test for identifying recently bottlenecked population form alleles frequency data. Conservation Biology 12:228-237.
  24. Queller, D. C. and K. F. Goodnight. 1989. Estimating relatedness using genetic markers. Evolution 43:258-275.
  25. Wright, S. 1978. Evolution and the genetics of populations, Vol. 4. Variability within and among Natural Populations. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  26. Bassam, B. J., G. Coetano-Anolles and P. M. Gresshoff. 1991. Fast and sensitive silver staining of DNA in polyacrylamide gels. Anal. Biochem. 196:80-83.
  27. Cornuet, J. M. and G. Luikart. 1996. Description and power analysis of two tests for detecting recent population bottlenecks from allele frequency data. Genet. 144:2001-2014.
  28. Goldstein, D. B. and D. D. Pollock. 1997. Launching microsatellites: a review of mutation processes and methods of phylogenetic inference. J. Hered. 88:335-342.
  29. Boyce, W. M., P. W. Hedrick, N. E. Muggli-Cockett, S. Kalinowski, M. C. Penedo and R. R. Ramey. 1996. Genetic variation of major histocompatibilty complex and microsatellite loci: a comparison in Bighorn sheep. Genet. 145:421-433.
  30. Barker, J. S. F., S. G. Tan, S. S. Moore, T. K. Mukherjee, J. L. Matheson and O. S. Selvaraj. 2001. Genetic variation within and relationships among populations of Asian goats (Capra hircus). J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 118:213-233.
  31. Cheng, H. H. and I. Levin. 1995. Developing of a genetic map of the chicken with markers of high utility. Poult. Sci. 74:1855-1874.
  32. Weir, B. S. and C. C. Cockerham. 1984. Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution 38:1358-1370.
  33. Crooijmans, R. P. M. A. and A. J. A. Van Kampen. 1994. New microsatellite markers on the linkage map of the chicken genome. J. Hered. 85:410-413.

Cited by

  1. Study on polymorphisms of microsatellite DNA of six Chinese indigenous sheep and goat breeds vol.1, pp.4, 2007,
  2. Assessment of Genetic Relatedness of Crossbred Chicken Populations Using Microsatellite Markers vol.48, pp.9-10, 2010,